Tag Archives: Maui

Asplenium lobulatum Mett.

Asplenium lobulatum

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Savai’i, ‘Upolu

local names: –

Asplenium trichomanes L.

Asplenium trichomanes

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui
New Zealand: North Island; South Island

local names: –

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Three subspecies are known to occur within the Polynesian region, of which only one is endemic.

The nominate race occurs in Australia and on New Zealand’s North- and South Islands, the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. densum (Brack.) W. H. Wagner is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, while the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens Meyer, which is native to Australia and Europe, is known from a few population on New Zealand’s North Island.

Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.

Clay’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus furcellatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiahala – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiohala – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele wai – Hawai’i Islands

Hyposmocoma papaiili Schmitz & Rubinoff

Crab Shell Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma papaiili)

The Crab Shell Cosmet Moth was scientifically described in the year 2011.

It is a rather inconspicuous dark greyish brown colored species, which is restricted to the island of Maui.

the males have a wingspan of about 0,72 to 0,88 cm, the females of up to 1,26 cm.

The larvae were found on Eucalyptus trees (which are not native to the Hawaiian Islands), where they most probably feed on lichens.

The larval case in its shape resembles somewhat the carapace of a crab. It is about 1 cm long and has an entrance at each of the both, strangely serrated ends.

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

Haliophyle flavistigma (Warren)

Haliophyle flavistigma

This species appears to be restricted to the island of Maui, at least one other, closely related, but not yet described species occurs on the nearby island of Moloka’i. [2]

There is obviously still not much known about the biology of this species, a situation that is shared with so many other Polynesian insect species …. [1]

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References:

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons licence (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Pisonia umbellifera (J. R. & G. Forst.) Seem.

Pisonia umbellifera

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Aiwa, Koro, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yagasa
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua

local names:

daiga – Fiji
papala – Hawai’i Islands
papala kepau – Hawai’i Islands
para para – Cook Islands
raro – Vanua Levu / Fiji
roro – Vanua Levu / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Thyrocopa geminipuncta Walsingham

Twinspotted Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa geminipuncta)

The Twinspotted Thyrocopa Moth obviously occurs on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 2 to 2,2 cm.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Dryophthorus distinguendus Perkins

Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil (Dryophthorus distinguendus)

The Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil was described in the year 1900.

The species was found first on the island of Laysan, namely in wooden boxes that came from the main islands. It was subsequently found also on nearly all of the other Hawaiian Islands (Hawai’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, and O’ahu), but appears in lists of extinct species, which, in my opinion, is quite strange.

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Coleoptera, Weevils. Bishop Museum Bulletin 31: 53-66. 1926

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

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Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Geranium hillebrandii Aedo & Muñoz Garm.

Geranium hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer, Plant Extinction Prevention Program
USFWS – Pacific Region

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia repens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes
Kiribati: Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden Island, Starbuck Island, Vostok Island
Marquesas: Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka
Niue (?)
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila

local names:

alena – Hawai’i Islands
anena – Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
te wao – Kiribati

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Hyposmocoma moopalikea Schmitz & Rubinoff

Palikea Water Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma moopalikea)

The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth was described in the year 2011.

The species is endemic to the island of Maui, it is so far known only from the vicinity of the Palikea stream in the Kipahulu valley.

The case-bearing caterpillars are aquatic, the larval cases are burrito-shaped and 0,5 to 0,7 cm in length.

The male moth reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm, the female is slightly larger. The forewings are mostly dark brown with some scattered off-white scales. [1]

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The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth appears to be very rare. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: The Hawaiian amphibious caterpillar guild: new species of Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) confirm distinct aquatic invasions and complex speciation patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 15–42. 2011

Thyrocopa apatela (Walsingham)

Flightless Haleakala Moth (Thyrocopa apatela)

The Haleakala Flightless Moth, also named as Grasshopper Moth, lives in the alpine zones of the Haleakala volcano.

Both sexes of this unconspicuous, about 1,5 cm long moth species have short wings and are flighless. They flutter in the wind, resembling dried leaves and are blown to appropriate deposits of organic debris, that have accumulated in rock crevices, where they mate and lay eggs.

The larvae can be found under large rocks, where the build web nests and where they feed on dried leaves and other organic debris.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.

Metrosideros polymorpha

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘ahihi ku ma kua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ahihi lehua – Hawai’i Islands
kumakua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
lehua papa – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands

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The ‘ohi’a lehua is by far the most common of the endemic tree species on the Hawaiian Islands and inhabits many areas on all of the main islands.

The species is highly variable, being usually a tall tree, but sometimes a small cushion-like shrub, and is thus split into eight varieties, these include:

Metrosideros polymorpha var. dieteri J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to Kaua’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. macrophylla (Rock) H. St. John only on Hawai’i and Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. newellii (Rock) H. St. John endemic to Hawai’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. polymorpha Gaudich. found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pseudorugosa (Skottsb.) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to western Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pumila (A. Heller) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. found on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

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The flowers of the ‘ohi’a lehua are usually red in color, but there are also orange- and yellow-flowering individuals. The nectar-rich flowers are one of the most important food resources, not only for various endemic and native insect species, but also for the few remaining endemic honeycreepers.

The ‘ohi’a lehua is a pioneer species on solidified lava, its dead leaves build the first fertile soil and therewith the basic conditions for further plant life. The tree is furthermore a very important basic component of another habitat, which, in such a way, is found only on the Hawaiian Islands – lava tubes. The roots of the trees, growing above such a lava tube, dangle from the ceiling of the tube, allowing rainwater to drip in, and furthermore build the basis of a food chain for an enormous number of specialized, cavernicolous arthropod species.

The wood is very hard and was in former times used for the construction of houses and temples (heiau), and of course for many other purposes, the bright red flowers (lehua), as well as the reddish colored new leaf shoots (liko) were/are used to make lei.

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References:

[1] N. DeBoer; E. A. Stacy: Divergence within and among 3 varieties of the endemic tree, ‘Ohi’a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the eastern slope of Hawai’i Island. Journal of Herdity 104(4): 1-10. 2013
[2] E. A. Stacy; J. B. Johansen; T. Sakishima; D. K. Price; Y. Pillon: Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha. Heredity (Edinb) 113(4): 334-342. 2014

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl

Lace Fern (Microlepia strigosa)

Distribution:

Fiji
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names:

nehe nehe – Rapa Nui
palai – Hawai’i Islands
palapalai – Hawai’i Islands

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The Lace Fern is distributed in many parts of Asia, within the Polynesian region it occurs on Tahiti, Society Islands as well as on Rapa Nui. The species can also be found on the Hawaiian main islands, where on the island of Maui, an endemic variety, Microlepia strigosa var. mauiensis (W. H. Wagner) D. D. Palmer, is known to exist, which was formerly thought to be a distinct species, and which can be distinguished from the typical variety by its hairy fronds.

The Hawaiian name for this species is palai resp. palapalai, its fronds were used in ancient times to decorate the altars of laka, the hula goddess, as well as for making lei.

In Rapa Nui the species is named nehe nehe, a term that is used for almost all fern species.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium (Gaudich.) Anderb.

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

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var. hawaiiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. kilaueanum (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. molokaiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner

Melicope pseudoanisata (Rock) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Melicope pseudoanisata

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

Hyposmocoma domicolens (Butler)

House-dwelling Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma domicolens)

This species was described already in 1881, the type specimen was collected in a house – thus its species epithet.

The adult reaches a wingspan of about 1,3 cm.

The species is so far known only from the Makawao Forest Reserve, a habitat that is now rapidly declining due to damage from invasive ungulates. [1][2]

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There are several specimens from other islands (Hawai’i, Lana’i, and Moloka’i), that were erroneously assigned to this species. [1]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. Part II. Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Akito Y. Kawahara; Daniel Rubinoff: Three new species of fancy case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma). ZooKeys 170: 1-20. 2012

Cyanea macrostegia Hillebr.

Cyanea macrostegia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

Nesotocus giffardi Perkins

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil (Nesotocus giffardi)

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil is found on the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu.

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The genus Nesotocus, which contains four species, is now placed within the subfamily Molytinae, with the most closely related species living in Australia and New Zealand.

The males of all species can easily be distinguished from the females by their longer legs, and especially by the position of their antennae, these are placed in the anterior third of the rostrum, while in the females the antennae are placed further towards the posterior third.

The larvae of all species bore in the wood of dead olapa trees (Cheirodendron trigynum (Gaudich.) Heller) on which they feed upon, the pupation takes place inside a chamber (pupal cell), which can be detected by a distinct hole on the outside of the wood.

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References:

[1] John Colburn Bridwell: Notes on Nesotocus Giffardi Perkins (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 4(1): 250-256. 1918
[2] Sadie A. Solomon: Systematics of the Hawaiian endemic weevil genus Nesotocus Perkins 1900 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Student Competition Display Presentations, Section A. Systematics, Morphology, and Evolution 2003

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Astelia menziesiana Sm.

Astelia menziesiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kaluaha – Hawai’i Islands
pa’iniu – Hawai’i Islands
pua akuhinia – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 18.09.2017

Megalagrion blackburni McLachlan

Blackburn’s Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion blackburni)

This species reaches a body length of slightly more than 6 cm and is thus the largest member of its family on the Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae of this species develop, like most other dragonfly species, in freshwater, the larvae of other members of this genus, which contains at least 30 species, however, sometimes live terrestrial (on ground) or arboreal (in trees). [1]

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The adults of several species in this genus show the quite unusual behavior of feigning death when caught (see photograph). [2]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 2; Apterygota to Thysanoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1948
[2] Francis G. Howarth; William P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cyanea elliptica (Rock) Lammers

Cyanea elliptica

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Lana’i, Maui

local names: –

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link

Pellaea ternifolia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kalamoho – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cenchrus agrimonioides Trin.

Cenchrus agrimonioides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kure (ex), Lana’i, Laysan (ex), Maui, Moloka’i, Midway (ex), O’ahu

local names: –

kamanomano – Hawai’i Islands
kumanomano – Hawai’i Islands

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The extinct populations that formerly occurred on some of the northwestern islands (Kure, Laysan, Midway) are sometimes regarded to as a distinct variety, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis F. Br..

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edited: 23.06.2017

Cyperus hillebrandii Boeck.

Cyperus hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

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two varieties:

Cyperus hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebr.) Kük.
Cyperus hillebrandii var. hillebrandii Boeck.

Thyrocopa megas Walsingham

Large Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa megas)

The Large Thyrocopa Moth is endemic to the island of Maui, where it is known to inhabit the Haleakala volcano area.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 2,6 to 3,6 cm, the forewings are very light whitish brown with some brown scales, the hindwings are very light whitish brown with an almost white fringe.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Nabis gagneorum Polhemus

Gagné’s Damsel Bug (Nabis gagneorum)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

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This species was described in 1999, it is known to occur on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The males are 0,78 cm long, the females are slightly larger, both sexes are dark brown colored.

Gagné’s Damsel Bug has brachypetrous wings and is flightless, it is semiaquatic and strictly confined to riparian habitats, it inhabits wet surfaces of rocks along streams but also midstream rocks, where it apparently also breeds. [1]

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References:

[1] Dan A. Polhemus: A new species of riparian Nabidae (Heteroptera) from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101: 868-874. 1999

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com 

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

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edited: 15.12.2018

Pisonia grandis R. Br.

Pisonia grandis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Kadavu, Mabualau, Nayabo, Rotuma, Vanua Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Lisianski, Maui
Kiribati: Abariringa, Enderbury, Flint, Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden, Manra, McKean, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra, Starbuck, Tabuaeran, Teraina, Vostok
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Fatu Huku, Hatu Iti, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Rose-Atoll, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu One, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fukave, Lifuka, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Maninita, Mokotu’u, Motutapu, Nomuka, Onevai, Onevao, Tau, Toketoke, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Fangatau, Kaukura, Makatea, Mataiva, Napuka, Niau, Nukutipipi, Pukapuka, Rangiroa, Raroia, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tenararo, Tepoto Nord, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vanavana
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Nui, Niulakita, Niutao, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Motu Faioa, ‘Uvea

local names:

buka – Fiji
puka – Cook Islands
puka avarua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
pukatea – Cook Islands
pu’avai – Samoa
talatalabia – Fiji

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 10.04.2019

Alucita objurgatella (Walsingham)

Alahee Many-plumed Moth (Alucita objurgatella)

This species was described in the year 1907, it reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm.

The Alahee Many-plumed Moth is thus far known only from the Hawaiian Islands, more precisely from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu – however, Elwood C. Zimmerman writes in 1958 in ‘Insects of Hawaii’: “I believe that this species is not a member of the native fauna and that it will some day be reported from its true home outside of Hawaii.”.

The larvae feed on the flower buds, fruits, and seeds of the native Alahe’e shrub (Psydrax odorata (G. Forst.) A. C. Sm. & S. P. Darwin), and are parasitized by various native parasitic wasp species, including the Metallic Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)) and the Hawaiian Ichneumon Wasp (Pristomerus hawaiiensis Perkins).

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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alucita-objurgatella-fhaw

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Caesalpinia bonduc

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa
Fiji: Leleuvia, Makaluva, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukuci, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Rotuma, Sawa-i-lau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yasawa
Gambier Islands: Kamaka
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Laysan, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Ata, Fafa, Foa, Niuatoputapu, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Tongatapu

local names:

anaoso – Samoa
hihikolo – Hawai’i Islands
kakalaioa – Hawai’i Islands
soni – Vanua Levu / Fiji
tartar mann – Rotuma / Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Lakeba, Nayau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: North Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

asaua – Samoa
tuanu’e – Mangaia, Ma’uke, Raraka / Cook Islands
tuenu’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
uluhe – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Psychotria hawaiiensis (A. Gray) Fosb.

Psychotria hawaiiensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

~~~

three varieties, nominate, Psychotria hawaiiensis var. hillebrandii (Rock) Fosb. and Psychotria hawaiiensis var. scoriacea (Rock) Fosb.

Callistopteris baldwinii (D. C. Eaton) Copel.

Callistopteris baldwinii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

This species appears to be endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

References:

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Jean-Yves Dubuisson; Kunio Iwatsuki; Sabine Hennequin; Motomi Ito: A taxonomic revision of Hymenophyllaceae. Blumea 52(2): 1-60. 2006

Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi

Screw Pine (Pandanus tectorius)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Dravuni, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Laucala, Mabualau, Makaluva, Matamanoa, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Nagigia, Namenalala, Namuka, Nananu, Nasoata, Naviti, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Qamea, Rotuma, Solkope, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatoa, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wayasewa, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Makapu, Makaroa, Mangareva, Manui, Mekiro, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Flint Island, Karoraina, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu Nono, Motu Puuru, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Kao, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Motutapu, Mounu, Niuatoputapu, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tafahi, Tau, Tofua, Toketoke, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uiha, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Akiaki, Anaa, Aratika, Hao, Katiu, Makatea, Makemo, Manihi, Mataiva, Morane, Mururoa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutepipi, Rangiroa, Raroia, Tahanea, Taiaro, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tatakoto, Temoe, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahitahi
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Niulakita, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Faioa, Fenua Fo’ou, Futuna, Nukuatea, Nukuloa, Nukutapu, ‘Uvea

local names:

‘ara – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
‘ara pepe – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke / Cook Islands
‘ara-ta’atai – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
‘ara-tai – ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
balawa – Fiji
draudreka – Fiji
fa – Niue; Tonga
fa’a mei – Marquesas
fa feutu – Niue
fa fi – Niue
fa ivi – Niue
fala – Samoa
falavao – Olohega / Tokelau
fala vao – Tokelau
fara – Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga / Cook Islands; Tupai / Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
fara moa – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara moua – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara uteute – Tahiti / Society Islands
fasa – Samoa
hala – Hawai’i Islands
hala kilipaki – Hawai’i Islands (spineless clone)
hara – Tongareva / Cook Islands
hat – Rotuma / Fiji
hata – Rotuma / Fiji
hosoa – Rotuma / Fiji
kiakia – Rotuma / Fiji
kie – Tonga (spineless clone)
lau fala – Samoa (spineless clone)
pandana – Palmerston / Cook Islands
pu hala – Hawai’I Islands
sa’aga – Rotuma / Fiji
te kaina – Kiribati
teou – Nui / Tuvalu
teto – Nui / Tuvalu
tima – Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
uea – Tupai / Society Islands
vadra – Fiji
varawa – Fiji
voivoi – Fiji
wala – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The Screw Pine is a geographically widespread and exceptionally morphologically variable species (or maybe a species complex). In the Polynesian region this plant is found almost everywhere, except for climatically inappropriate areas like New Zealand or Rapa Nui.

The Screw Pine was once one of the most important plants for the Polynesians, and Screw Pine saplings, together with saplings of Breadfruit Trees, Coconut Palms, Taro and several others, were transported by the Polynesian settlers on their boats during inter-island migration – to be planted out at their new island homes.

The Polynesians, over time, reared numerous cultivars, among them such whose leaves are lacking spines on their margins, and which therefore are very well-suited for weaving.

The exceptional variability of the wild and cultivated forms lead to the description of countless species, subspecies and varieties. So, Harold St. John alone described in his “Revision of the Genus Pandanus” various female plants as distinct species – in many cases from geographically very localized populations. In a biological sense, all of these ‘species’ are part of the same population, and furthermore, it is impossible to designate male plants to such ‘species’.

Some of the morphologically distinct forms that are seemingly restricted to the higher elevations of larger islands, like Pandanus papenooensis H. St. John on Tahiti or Pandanus temehaniensis J. W. Moore on Ra’iatea, are often still referred to as distinct species.

(I personally, however, see all of these forms as Pandanus tectorius.)

Nevertheless, the genus is in urgent need of a proper revision!

~~~

As already mentioned, in virtually all parts of Polynesia the leaves were and are used for weaving, among other things, for elaborate mats, especially in Tonga, or boat sails (in former times on the Hawai’i Islands), right up to roofs and walls of houses (!). The stilt roots were used, for example, on the Cook Islands, for house building (as abutment walls) too.

The fruits are fruit heads comprising an aggregate of many tightly bunched phalanges or drupes that are edible. In some cultivars, these drupes reach the size of an apple. They are eaten especially in parts of Kiribati, Tokelau, and in Tuvalu.

*********************

References:

[1] Sven Buerki; Martin W. Callmander; Dion S. Devey; Lauren Chappell; Timothy Gallaher; Jérôme Munzinger; Thomas Haevermans Félix Forest: Straightening out the screw-pines: A first step in understanding phylogenetic relationships within Pandanaceae. Taxon 61(5): 1010-1020. 2012
[2] Timothy Gallaher; Martin W. Gallmander; Sven Buerki; Sterling C. Keeley: A long distance dispersal hypothesis for the Pandanaceae and the origins of the Pandanus tectorius complex. Molecular Phylogenetis and Evolution 83: 20-32.2015

*********************

pandanus-tectorius-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 13.02.2017

Thyrocopa alterna Walsingham

Unarmed Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa alterna)

This species is known to occur on the islands of Hawai’i and Maui.

The species reaches wingspans from 1,6 to 3 cm, with the individuals from Hawai’i generally being larger than those from Maui.

~~~

Following a revision of the genus in 2009 two forms formerly treated as distinct species are now included within this species, Thyrocopa adumbrata Walsingham and Thyrocopa inermis Walsingham.

********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Cyclosorus pendens (D. D. Palmer) N. Snow

Cyclosorus pendens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

Melicope hawaiensis (Wawra) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Melicope hawaiensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Lana’i

local names: –

*********************

melicope-hawaiiensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Cyrtandra platyphylla A. Gray

Cyrtandra platyphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

cyrtandra-platyphylla-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Selaginella arbuscula (Kaulf.) Spring

Selaginella arbuscula

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

imu kea – Nuku Hiva / Marquesas
lepelepe a moa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

selaginella-arbuscula-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Panicum pellitum Trin.

Panicum pellitum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Ni’ihau

local names: –

*********************

panicum-pellitum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Coprosma ernodeoides A. Gray

Coprosma ernodeoides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

coprosma-ernodeoides-fks

coprosma-ernodeoides-fks1

Photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Hyposmocoma opuulaau Schmitz & Rubinoff

Tree Cone Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma opuulaau)

This species from the island of Maui was described in the year 2011.

The larval case of this species is a small and thin, elongate cone-shaped, up to 0,9 cm long structure, and is decorated with very small bits of sand and dried plant pieces which are woven with silk filaments on the dorsal half of the case. The case is bicolored, being pale gray to silvery on the ventral side. It furthermore has an operculum which can be closed by the larva from the inside.

The larvae were found on and beneath the bark of Swamp Mahagony trees (Eucalyptus robusta Sm.), a tree species that is not native to the Hawaiian Islands, and that was only introduced by men. They most probably feed on algae and lichens, crowing on the bark.

The adult moths have very dark grey to nearly black colored forewings, the hindwings are a shade lighter.

They have a wingspan of 0,7 to about 1 cm.

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

Cyrtandra macrocalyx Hillebr.

Cyrtandra macrocalyx

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

Waltheria indica L.

Waltheria indica

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

‘ala’ala pu loa – Hawai’i Islands
hala ‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands
hi’aloa – Hawai’i Islands
kaepu – Marquesas
kanakaloa – Hawai’i Islands
puehu – Marquesas
puepu – Marquesas
puunehu – Marquesas
‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

waltheria-indica-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Nesosydne raillardiicola (Muir)

Raillardia Delphacid (Nesosydne raillardiicola)

This species feeds on at least two of the endemic Dubautia species, Dubautia ciliolata (DC.) Keck and Dubautia scabra (DC.) Keck..

~~~

The photo probably shows this species.

*********************

nesosydne-raillardiicola-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 22.04.2016

Portulaca lutea Sol. ex G. Forst.

Portulaca lutea

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Marotiri Rocks, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Bacon Island, Mabualau, Rotuma
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Aukena, Gaioio, Kouaku, Makaroa, Mangareva, Taravai, Taraururoa, Tekava, Temoe, Vaiatekeue
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Hawai’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Molokini, Necker, Nihoa, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker, Birnie, Enderbury, Howland, Jarvis, Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden, Manra, McKean, Nikumaroro, Orona, Rawaki, Starbuck, Tabuaeran
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Motu Iti, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island
Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva
Samoa: Namu’a (?), Nu’ulua, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, , Motu One, Ra’iatea, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu
Tonga: Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Ahe, Ahunui, Anaa, Apataki, Arutua, Fakahina, Fakarava, Fangatau, Fangataufa, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Maria, Moruroa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutipipi, Paraoa, Pukapuka, Rangiroa, Raroia, Reao, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tenarunga, Tepoto Nord, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahanga, Vanavana
Tuvalu: Nui

local names:

katuri – Tongareva / Cook Islands
pokea – Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
pokea muramura – Miti’aro / Cook Islands

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Hyposmocoma pukoa Schmitz & Rubinoff

Koa Bugle Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma pukoa)

The Koa Bugle Cosmet Moth was scientifically described in the year 2011. This species is so far known from the Makawao Forest Reserve only, where its larvae can be found on Koa Acacias (Acacia koa A. Gray).

As in all Hyposmocoma species, the larvae live in a larval case. This larval case is a bugle-shaped structure, and about 0,4 to 0,7 cm in length. Its color is a light grey with several darker bands, representing somewhat like growth rings that show the different periods during which the larva has expanded its case.

The adult moths are light grey in color, and display some inconspicuous, darker markings on their forewings.

The males have a wingspan of about 0,9 to 1 cm, the females are slightly larger than the males.

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

Dubautia waianapanapaensis G. D. Carr

Dubautia waianapanapaensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

*********************

dubautia-waianapanapaensis-gdc

Photo: Gerald D. Carr; by courtesy of Gerald D. Carr

http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/natives.htm

Heliotropium curassavicum L.

Heliotropium curassavicum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names:

kipukai – Hawai’i Islands
lau po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands

********************

heliotropium-curassavicum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Carex macloviana ssp. subfusca (Boott) T. Koyama

Carex macloviana ssp. subfusca

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Solanum americanum Mill.

Solanum americanum Mill.

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga
Fiji: Fulaga, Kadavu, Rotuma, Taveuni, Viti Levu, Yageta
Hawai’i Islands (?): Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midwayi, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes Reef
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island, Sail Rock (Hen and Chicken Islands), Kapiti Island, Kermadec Islands, North Island, Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands), South Island, Three Kings Islands, Tiritiri Matangi Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island, Phillip Island
Samoa: Fanuatapu (?), Nu’ulua (?), Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: Tongatapu

 

local names:

akari pipiro (?) – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
poporo– New Zealand
poroporo– Aitutaki, Mangaia, Rarotonga / Cook Islands; New Zealand
poroporo puaka– Ma’uke / Cook Islands
poro puaka– ‘Atiu, Mitiaro / Cook Islands
raupeti– New Zealand
remuroa– New Zealand

~~~

This species can be found in the tropical regions almost worldwide, though its native range probably comprises the coastal areas along the tropical Pacific of the Americas, Australia, Melanesia, and probably parts of Polynesia. [1]

The very variable species is about 1,5 m tall and bears small white flowers and glossy black berries.

*********************

References:

[1] Tiina Särkinen; Peter Poczai; Gloria E. Barboza; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Maria Baden; Sandra Knapp: A revision of the Old World Black Nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 106: 1-223. 2018

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 25.09.2018

Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich.) Steud.

Eragrostis variabilis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes

local names:

’emoloa – Hawai’i Islands
kalamalo – Hawai’i Islands
kawelu – Hawai’i Islands

Asplenium nidus L.

Asplenium nidus

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea
Fiji: Fulaga, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Moturiki, Namuka, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Qamea, Rotuma, Taveuni
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu; Kiribati: Palmyra, Teraina
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson, Oeno, Pitcairn
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Fafa, Oneata, Pangaimotu, Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Manihi, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niulakita, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, Motu Faioa, Motu Nukuhifalo, Motu Nukuhione, Motu Nukulua, ‘Uvea

local names:

ekaha – Hawai’i Islands
kota’a
– Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kota’a tua-rua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
kota’a panau – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
kota’a roroa – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
laugapapa – Samoa
laukotawa – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands
raukotaha – Manihiki, Raraka / Cook Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Lachnagrostis filiformis (G. Forst.) Trin.

Lachnagrostis filiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui: Motu Nui, Rapa Nui

local names: –

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lachnagrostis-filiformis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited:

05.02.2017

Lobelia grayana E. Wimm.

Lobelia grayana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

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lobelia-grayana-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr.

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Lakeba, Nayau, Nukulevu, Yanucalailai, Nacula, Nukulau, Makaluva, Moturiki, Nasoata, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Vomo, Vomo Lailai, Waya
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Mekiro, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Green Island, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands), North Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Motutapu, Nomuka, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Tau, Tufaka, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fangataufa, Hao, Hereheretue, Makatea
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names:

fue moa – Samoa
fue tahi– Tonga
kaka – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kaka pae-tai – Mangaia / Cook Islands
lawere – Fiji
lauivi – Fiji
lauwere – Fiji
pohue – Tongareva / Cook Islands
poue – Palmerston / Cook Islands
ra-pohue – Raraka / Cook Islands
rau-pohue tarona – Manihiki / Cook Islands
wa vui – Fiji
wa vulavula – Fiji
yale – Fiji
yaleyale – Fiji

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edited: 10.04.2019

Geograpsus severnsi Paulay & Starmer

Hawaiian Land Crab (Geograpsus severnsi)

This species was scientifically described in the year 2011.

Subfossil remains of land crabs have been found on the major Hawaiian Islands for many years, but their identity was not clear. Researchers identified the crab as a new species by comparing physical characteristics with specimens from various collections.

The Hawaiian Land Crab is now known to have occured on all of the larger islands in the Hawaiian chain. The species reached a carapace size of about 6 cm and was therefore probably the largest in its genus.

The Hawaiian land crab species vanished at about 1000 A.D., shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers resp. of the new animals that the Polynesians brought to the islands (chickens, dogs, pigs and rats).

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References:

[1] Gustav Paulay; John Starmer: Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6(5): e19916 DOI

Clermontia oblongifolia Gaudich.

Clermontia oblongifolia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

~~~

three subspecies:

Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. brevipes (E. Wimm.) Lammers
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. mauiensis (Rock) Lammers
Clermontia oblongifolia ssp. oblongifolia

Drepanis coccinea (Forster)

Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea)

The Iiwi belongs to the group of the so called drepanidine finches, a radiation of the Finch family, which is distributed exclusively on the Hawaiian archipelago and which has produced at least seventy species, of which, however, most have unfortunately been extirpated nowadays.

Even the Iiwi, which in the 20th century was still one of the most common of the surviving drepanidine finches, and which occured on all of the Hawaiian main islands, is now rare and has actually already disappeared from some of the islands (Lana’i, Ni’ihau).

The bird, which particularly feeds on nectar, is about 15 cm long and therefore belongs to the middle sized species within the group, the sexes are identical in color.

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drepanis-coccinea-fks

immature bird

drepanis-coccinea-fks1

adult bird

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Photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Plantago pachyphylla A. Gray

Plantago pachyphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

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plantago-pachyphylla-oj

Photo: Oscar Johnson
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/henicorhina

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

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edited:

05.02.2017

Viola chamissoniana Ging.

Viola chamissoniana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘olopu – Hawai’i Islands
pamakani – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

Viola chamissoniana nominate endemic to O’ahu
Viola chamissoniana ssp. robusta (Hillebr.) W. L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst & Sohmer endemic to Moloka’i
Viola chamissoniana ssp. tracheliifolia (Ging.) W. L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst & Sohmer occurs in Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu

Doodia kunthiana Gaudich.

Doodia kunthiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

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References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

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blechnum-norfolkense-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

edited: 03.02.2018

Lipochaeta heterophylla A. Gray

Lipochaeta heterophylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

Wikstroemia oahuensis (A. Gray) Rock

Wikstroemia oahuensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

~~~

Wikstroemia oahuensis var. palustris (Hochr.) Peterson only on Kaua’i

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wikstroemia-oahuensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Oreobolus furcatus H. Mann

Alpine Bog Sedge (Oreobolus furcatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names: –

~~~

The Alpine Bog Sedge is a flat cushion plant, that occurs on some of the Hawaiian Islands, namely on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.

The species is restricted to high elevations, where it grows in so called alpine bogs.

The species occurs as well as a very small relict population on the island of Tahiti, where it is restricted to only two ridges of the Mt. Orohena, the highest mountain of Tahiti.

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oreobolus-furcatus-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 09.10.2016

Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce

Nertera granadensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

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nertera-granadensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Genophantis leahi Swezey

Akoko Pyralid Moth (Genophantis leahi)

The Akoko Pyralid Moth was described in the year 1910.

The species, which had a wingspan of 1,8 to 2 cm, occurred on at least four of the Hawaiian Islands, namely Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.

The caterpillars of this species fed abundantly on the leaves of the native akoko (Euphorbia degeneri Sherff), but were also found on the introduced Euphorbia hirta L.. The caterpillars hid themselves in self-made nets along the stems as well as between adjacent leaves, they fed upon one surface and the mesophyll of the leaf, but left the other epidermis untouched, hence, their presence on the plant was indicated by webbed dead leaves.

~~~

The Akoko Pyralid Moth is now considered extinct, the reasons, however, are not known – but the author of the species states in the species description.:

Limnerium blackburni [Diadegma blackburni (Cameron)] is quite common as a parasite on the larvae of this moth. From a batch of larvae collected, usually more parasites are reared than moths.”

Maybe there was some kind of an imbalance between this parasitoid wasp species and its host that led to the extinction of the latter.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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genophantis-leahi-phes

Depiction from: ‘Otto H. Sweezey: Some New Species of Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 103-106. 1908-1912’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Nesophrosyne broussaisiai Bennett

Maui Kanawao Leafhopper (Nesophrosyne broussaisiai)

This new species, that was described in the year 2011, is restricted to the island of Maui, where the animals can be found on the leaves of the kanawao (Broussaisia arguta Gaudich.).

The Maui Kanawao Leafhopper can be assigned to a species group (kanawao species group), that is so far known only from the islands of Hawai’i and Maui, and that currently contains five species, which resemble each other in appearance, and which are adapted to kanawao as their only host plant.

The males are about 0,42 cm long, while the females are slightly larger.

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References:

[1] Gordon M. Bennett; Patrick M. O’Grady: Review of the native Hawaiian leafhopper genus Nesophrosyne (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) with descriptions of eight new species associated with Broussaisia arguta. Zootaxa 2805: 1-25. 2011

Campsicnemus makawao Evenhuis

Makawao Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus makawao)

This species was scientifically described in the year 2011 and named after the typus locality, the Makawao Forest Reserve in the east part of Maui.

The Makawao Long-legged Fly resembles the two species Campsicnemus penicillatus Parent from the island of Hawai’i as well as Campsicnemus penicillatoides Evenhuis from Kaua’i.

The animal is about 0,3 to 0,31 cm long. The head is dark brown, the thorax is yellowish brown and the abdomen is brown in color. The legs are yellowish white in color. The wings are about 0,31 to 0,32 cm long and subtransparent.

The females of this species are hitherto unknown.

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References:

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: New Species of Campsicnemus from East Maui, Hawaiian Islands (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 109: 15-22. 2011

Kamehameha lunalilo Kirklady

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug (Kamehameha lunalilo)

The genus Kamehameha (currently) contains three species, of which two are each restricted to a single island (Kaua’i, Nihoa).

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug, however, occurs obviously on all of the Hawaiian main islands, where it can be found among epiphytic mosses and fern, that cover the branches of the rainforest trees.

It is probably a predacious species.

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References:

[1] Adam Asquith: Hawaiian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): The Evolution of Bugs and Thought. Pacific Science 51(4): 356-365. 1997
[2] Alfred G. Wheeler: Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, Predators, Opportunists. Comstock Pub Assoc, 2001

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kamehameha-lunalilo-fhaw

Depiction from ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Polystichum haleakalense Brack.

Polystichum haleakalense

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

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polystichum-haleakalense-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray

Eurya sandwicensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, O’ahu, Maui, Moloka’i

local names:

anini – Hawai’i Islands
wanini – Hawai’i Islands

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eurya-sandwicensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited:

05.02.2017

Panicum xerophilum (Hillebr.) Hitchc.

Panicum xerophilum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

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panicum-xerophilum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Lipochaeta connata (Gaudich.) DC.

Lipochaeta connata

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Ni’ihau

local names: –

~~~

Lipochaeta connata ssp. connata (Gaudich.) DC.
Lipochaeta connata ssp. acris (Sherff) W. L. Wagner & H. Rob.

Phyllostegia pilosa H. St. John

Phyllostegia pilosa

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui, Moloka’i (ex)

local names: –

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Tetramolopium arenarium (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Tetramolopium arenarium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui (ex)

local names: –

~~~

Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. arenarium (A. Gray) Hillebr.
Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. laxum Lowrey

Cyperus pennatiformis Kük.

Cyperus pennatiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i (ex), Kaua’i (ex), Laysan, Maui (ex), O’ahu (ex)

local names: –

~~~

two varieties:

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii Kük.
Cyperus pennatiformis var. pennatiformis Kük. = possibly extinct

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cyperus-p-v-bryanii-fks

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited:

05.02.2017

Campsicnemus aeptus Hardy & Kohn

Flightless Maui Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus aeptus)

This species from the island of Maui was described in the year 1964, it lives in the damp forests at the peak of the Pu’u Kukui Mountain in the west of the island at elevations of 1767 m.

The males reach a length of 0,17 to 0,19 cm, their stubby wings are about 0,17 cm long.

The head is yellowish brown in color, the thorax is brown and to some extent exhibits a slight bronze sheen. The abdomen is dark brown colored and on the upper side covered with short black hairs, on the underside with a few longer hairs. The legs are yellowish brown in color.

The females of this species are not as yet known.

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References:

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: Review of flighless Dolichopodidae (Diptera) in the Hawaiian Islands. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 53: 1-29. 1997

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edited: 21.09.2016