Tag Archives: Kaua’i

Asplenium lobulatum Mett.

Asplenium lobulatum

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Savai’i, ‘Upolu

local names: –

Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.

Clay’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus furcellatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiahala – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiohala – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele wai – Hawai’i Islands

Pisonia umbellifera (J. R. & G. Forst.) Seem.

Pisonia umbellifera

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Aiwa, Koro, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yagasa
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua

local names:

daiga – Fiji
papala – Hawai’i Islands
papala kepau – Hawai’i Islands
para para – Cook Islands
raro – Vanua Levu / Fiji
roro – Vanua Levu / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Hyposmocoma eliai Schmitz & Rubinoff

Elia’s Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma eliai)

This species was described in the year 2011, it is so far known only from the type locality near the Nawiliwili bay in the southeast of the island of Kaua’i.

It is one of the smallest species of its genus, males have a wingspan of only about 0,45 to 0,5 cm. The color of the forewings is blackish, except for three disconnected white stripes on each of the wings, and some dark grey scales, the hindwings are completely grey in color.

The larvae live on large barren volcanic rocks along the shoreline, which regularly getting sprayed with salty sea water. They build a bag-shaped, about 0,4 cm long larval case, made of fine sand interwoven with silk.

They obviously feed on algae. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

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edited: 01.03.2016

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia repens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes
Kiribati: Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden Island, Starbuck Island, Vostok Island
Marquesas: Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka
Niue (?)
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila

local names:

alena – Hawai’i Islands
anena – Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
te wao – Kiribati

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.

Metrosideros polymorpha

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘ahihi ku ma kua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ahihi lehua – Hawai’i Islands
kumakua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
lehua papa – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The ‘ohi’a lehua is by far the most common of the endemic tree species on the Hawaiian Islands and inhabits many areas on all of the main islands.

The species is highly variable, being usually a tall tree, but sometimes a small cushion-like shrub, and is thus split into eight varieties, these include:

Metrosideros polymorpha var. dieteri J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to Kaua’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. macrophylla (Rock) H. St. John only on Hawai’i and Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. newellii (Rock) H. St. John endemic to Hawai’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. polymorpha Gaudich. found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pseudorugosa (Skottsb.) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to western Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pumila (A. Heller) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. found on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

~~~

The flowers of the ‘ohi’a lehua are usually red in color, but there are also orange- and yellow-flowering individuals. The nectar-rich flowers are one of the most important food resources, not only for various endemic and native insect species, but also for the few remaining endemic honeycreepers.

The ‘ohi’a lehua is a pioneer species on solidified lava, its dead leaves build the first fertile soil and therewith the basic conditions for further plant life. The tree is furthermore a very important basic component of another habitat, which, in such a way, is found only on the Hawaiian Islands – lava tubes. The roots of the trees, growing above such a lava tube, dangle from the ceiling of the tube, allowing rainwater to drip in, and furthermore build the basis of a food chain for an enormous number of specialized, cavernicolous arthropod species.

The wood is very hard and was in former times used for the construction of houses and temples (heiau), and of course for many other purposes, the bright red flowers (lehua), as well as the reddish colored new leaf shoots (liko) were/are used to make lei.

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References:

[1] N. DeBoer; E. A. Stacy: Divergence within and among 3 varieties of the endemic tree, ‘Ohi’a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the eastern slope of Hawai’i Island. Journal of Herdity 104(4): 1-10. 2013
[2] E. A. Stacy; J. B. Johansen; T. Sakishima; D. K. Price; Y. Pillon: Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha. Heredity (Edinb) 113(4): 334-342. 2014

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Endodonta apiculata Ancey

Pointed Disc Snail (Endodonta apiculata)

The Pointed Disc Snail, which was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, was described in the year 1889.

The shells of this species reached an average size of 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

~~~

The genus Endodonta contains a little more than 10 species, all, except probably for one, are now obviously extinct.

The destruction of large areas of the native lowland habitats led to their extinction, and introduced invasive species, especially several aggressive ant species (for example the Red Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) or the Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger))) are a very serious threat to the last remaining endemic snail species, and are blamed for the extinction of many island endemic species. [2]

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Update on the status of the remaining Hawaiian land snail species Part 4: Punctidae and Endodontidae. 2016

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edited: 23.03.2017

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl

Lace Fern (Microlepia strigosa)

Distribution:

Fiji
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names:

nehe nehe – Rapa Nui
palai – Hawai’i Islands
palapalai – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The Lace Fern is distributed in many parts of Asia, within the Polynesian region it occurs on Tahiti, Society Islands as well as on Rapa Nui. The species can also be found on the Hawaiian main islands, where on the island of Maui, an endemic variety, Microlepia strigosa var. mauiensis (W. H. Wagner) D. D. Palmer, is known to exist, which was formerly thought to be a distinct species, and which can be distinguished from the typical variety by its hairy fronds.

The Hawaiian name for this species is palai resp. palapalai, its fronds were used in ancient times to decorate the altars of laka, the hula goddess, as well as for making lei.

In Rapa Nui the species is named nehe nehe, a term that is used for almost all fern species.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium (Gaudich.) Anderb.

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

var. hawaiiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. kilaueanum (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. molokaiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner

Nesotocus giffardi Perkins

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil (Nesotocus giffardi)

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil is found on the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu.

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The genus Nesotocus, which contains four species, is now placed within the subfamily Molytinae, with the most closely related species living in Australia and New Zealand.

The males of all species can easily be distinguished from the females by their longer legs, and especially by the position of their antennae, these are placed in the anterior third of the rostrum, while in the females the antennae are placed further towards the posterior third.

The larvae of all species bore in the wood of dead olapa trees (Cheirodendron trigynum (Gaudich.) Heller) on which they feed upon, the pupation takes place inside a chamber (pupal cell), which can be detected by a distinct hole on the outside of the wood.

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References:

[1] John Colburn Bridwell: Notes on Nesotocus Giffardi Perkins (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 4(1): 250-256. 1918
[2] Sadie A. Solomon: Systematics of the Hawaiian endemic weevil genus Nesotocus Perkins 1900 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Student Competition Display Presentations, Section A. Systematics, Morphology, and Evolution 2003

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Astelia menziesiana Sm.

Astelia menziesiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kaluaha – Hawai’i Islands
pa’iniu – Hawai’i Islands
pua akuhinia – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 18.09.2017

Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link

Pellaea ternifolia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kalamoho – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Trupanea bidensicola Hardy & Delfinado

Beggarticks Fruit Fly (Trupanea bidensicola)

The Beggarticks Fruit Fly comes from the island of Kaua’i and was described in the year 1980.

It closely resembles the Thick-legged Fruit Fly (Trupanea crassipes (Thomson)) and was considered identical with it for some time.

The larvae of this species feed on the developing seeds of the Cosmosflower Beggarticks (Bidens cosmoides (A. Gray) Sherff), and probably also on other species from that genus.

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edited: 23.06.2017

Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trevis.

Huperzia serrata

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, O’ahu, Moloka’i
Samoa: Savai’i
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names: –

Cyperus hillebrandii Boeck.

Cyperus hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

two varieties:

Cyperus hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebr.) Kük.
Cyperus hillebrandii var. hillebrandii Boeck.

Hyposmocoma eepawai Schmitz & Rubinoff

Eepa’s Water Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma eepawai)

This species was described in the year 2011.

The species is endemic to the island of Kaua’i, where it is known only from the drainage of the Kawaikoi stream on the north-western plateau of the Alaka’i swamp.

The amphibious caterpillars build bugle-shaped larval cases.

The moth reaches a wingspan of up to 1,6 cm, the forewings are mostly greyish-blue with pale tipped scales, with very few scattered rusty scales. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: The Hawaiian amphibious caterpillar guild: new species of Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) confirm distinct aquatic invasions and complex speciation patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 15–42. 2011

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edited: 29.01.2017

Alucita objurgatella (Walsingham)

Alahee Many-plumed Moth (Alucita objurgatella)

This species was described in the year 1907, it reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm.

The Alahee Many-plumed Moth is thus far known only from the Hawaiian Islands, more precisely from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu – however, Elwood C. Zimmerman writes in 1958 in ‘Insects of Hawaii’: “I believe that this species is not a member of the native fauna and that it will some day be reported from its true home outside of Hawaii.”.

The larvae feed on the flower buds, fruits, and seeds of the native Alahe’e shrub (Psydrax odorata (G. Forst.) A. C. Sm. & S. P. Darwin), and are parasitized by various native parasitic wasp species, including the Metallic Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)) and the Hawaiian Ichneumon Wasp (Pristomerus hawaiiensis Perkins).

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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alucita-objurgatella-fhaw

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Caesalpinia bonduc

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa
Fiji: Leleuvia, Makaluva, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukuci, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Rotuma, Sawa-i-lau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yasawa
Gambier Islands: Kamaka
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Laysan, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Ata, Fafa, Foa, Niuatoputapu, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Tongatapu

local names:

anaoso – Samoa
hihikolo – Hawai’i Islands
kakalaioa – Hawai’i Islands
soni – Vanua Levu / Fiji
tartar mann – Rotuma / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Lakeba, Nayau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: North Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

asaua – Samoa
tuanu’e – Mangaia, Ma’uke, Raraka / Cook Islands
tuenu’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
uluhe – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 10.04.2019

Callistopteris baldwinii (D. C. Eaton) Copel.

Callistopteris baldwinii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

This species appears to be endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

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References:

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Jean-Yves Dubuisson; Kunio Iwatsuki; Sabine Hennequin; Motomi Ito: A taxonomic revision of Hymenophyllaceae. Blumea 52(2): 1-60. 2006

Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi

Screw Pine (Pandanus tectorius)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Dravuni, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Laucala, Mabualau, Makaluva, Matamanoa, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Nagigia, Namenalala, Namuka, Nananu, Nasoata, Naviti, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Qamea, Rotuma, Solkope, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatoa, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wayasewa, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Makapu, Makaroa, Mangareva, Manui, Mekiro, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Flint Island, Karoraina, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu Nono, Motu Puuru, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Kao, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Motutapu, Mounu, Niuatoputapu, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tafahi, Tau, Tofua, Toketoke, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uiha, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Akiaki, Anaa, Aratika, Hao, Katiu, Makatea, Makemo, Manihi, Mataiva, Morane, Mururoa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutepipi, Rangiroa, Raroia, Tahanea, Taiaro, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tatakoto, Temoe, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahitahi
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Niulakita, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Faioa, Fenua Fo’ou, Futuna, Nukuatea, Nukuloa, Nukutapu, ‘Uvea

local names:

‘ara – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
‘ara pepe – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke / Cook Islands
‘ara-ta’atai – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
‘ara-tai – ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
balawa – Fiji
draudreka – Fiji
fa – Niue; Tonga
fa’a mei – Marquesas
fa feutu – Niue
fa fi – Niue
fa ivi – Niue
fala – Samoa
falavao – Olohega / Tokelau
fala vao – Tokelau
fara – Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga / Cook Islands; Tupai / Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
fara moa – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara moua – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara uteute – Tahiti / Society Islands
fasa – Samoa
hala – Hawai’i Islands
hala kilipaki – Hawai’i Islands (spineless clone)
hara – Tongareva / Cook Islands
hat – Rotuma / Fiji
hata – Rotuma / Fiji
hosoa – Rotuma / Fiji
kiakia – Rotuma / Fiji
kie – Tonga (spineless clone)
lau fala – Samoa (spineless clone)
pandana – Palmerston / Cook Islands
pu hala – Hawai’I Islands
sa’aga – Rotuma / Fiji
te kaina – Kiribati
teou – Nui / Tuvalu
teto – Nui / Tuvalu
tima – Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
uea – Tupai / Society Islands
vadra – Fiji
varawa – Fiji
voivoi – Fiji
wala – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The Screw Pine is a geographically widespread and exceptionally morphologically variable species (or maybe a species complex). In the Polynesian region this plant is found almost everywhere, except for climatically inappropriate areas like New Zealand or Rapa Nui.

The Screw Pine was once one of the most important plants for the Polynesians, and Screw Pine saplings, together with saplings of Breadfruit Trees, Coconut Palms, Taro and several others, were transported by the Polynesian settlers on their boats during inter-island migration – to be planted out at their new island homes.

The Polynesians, over time, reared numerous cultivars, among them such whose leaves are lacking spines on their margins, and which therefore are very well-suited for weaving.

The exceptional variability of the wild and cultivated forms lead to the description of countless species, subspecies and varieties. So, Harold St. John alone described in his “Revision of the Genus Pandanus” various female plants as distinct species – in many cases from geographically very localized populations. In a biological sense, all of these ‘species’ are part of the same population, and furthermore, it is impossible to designate male plants to such ‘species’.

Some of the morphologically distinct forms that are seemingly restricted to the higher elevations of larger islands, like Pandanus papenooensis H. St. John on Tahiti or Pandanus temehaniensis J. W. Moore on Ra’iatea, are often still referred to as distinct species.

(I personally, however, see all of these forms as Pandanus tectorius.)

Nevertheless, the genus is in urgent need of a proper revision!

~~~

As already mentioned, in virtually all parts of Polynesia the leaves were and are used for weaving, among other things, for elaborate mats, especially in Tonga, or boat sails (in former times on the Hawai’i Islands), right up to roofs and walls of houses (!). The stilt roots were used, for example, on the Cook Islands, for house building (as abutment walls) too.

The fruits are fruit heads comprising an aggregate of many tightly bunched phalanges or drupes that are edible. In some cultivars, these drupes reach the size of an apple. They are eaten especially in parts of Kiribati, Tokelau, and in Tuvalu.

*********************

References:

[1] Sven Buerki; Martin W. Callmander; Dion S. Devey; Lauren Chappell; Timothy Gallaher; Jérôme Munzinger; Thomas Haevermans Félix Forest: Straightening out the screw-pines: A first step in understanding phylogenetic relationships within Pandanaceae. Taxon 61(5): 1010-1020. 2012
[2] Timothy Gallaher; Martin W. Gallmander; Sven Buerki; Sterling C. Keeley: A long distance dispersal hypothesis for the Pandanaceae and the origins of the Pandanus tectorius complex. Molecular Phylogenetis and Evolution 83: 20-32.2015

*********************

pandanus-tectorius-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 13.02.2017

Cyclosorus pendens (D. D. Palmer) N. Snow

Cyclosorus pendens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

Selaginella arbuscula (Kaulf.) Spring

Selaginella arbuscula

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

imu kea – Nuku Hiva / Marquesas
lepelepe a moa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

selaginella-arbuscula-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Panicum pellitum Trin.

Panicum pellitum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Ni’ihau

local names: –

*********************

panicum-pellitum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Waltheria indica L.

Waltheria indica

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

‘ala’ala pu loa – Hawai’i Islands
hala ‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands
hi’aloa – Hawai’i Islands
kaepu – Marquesas
kanakaloa – Hawai’i Islands
puehu – Marquesas
puepu – Marquesas
puunehu – Marquesas
‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

waltheria-indica-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Kadua haupuensis Lorence & W. L. Wagner

Haupu Kadua (Kadua haupuensis)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

~~~

The Haupu Kadua was described a s a distinct species in the year 2010.

It was discovered on the Ha’upu Mountain Range on the island of Kaua’i, and was originally thought to represent a sub-population of another Kadua species, Kadua flynnii (W. L. Wagner & Lorence) W. L. Wagner & Lorence.

The Haupu Kadua is an about 1 to 1,5 m tall shrub with five to fifteen much-branched stems, and shiny green leaves.

The species appears to be extinct in its original location in the wild now, however, the species is in cultivation, and seedlings are planned to be released into suitable habitats.

*********************

References:

[1] David Lorence; Warren Wagner; William Laidlaw: Kadua haupuensis (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae), a new endemic species from Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands. Brittonia 62(2): 137-144. 2010

*********************

kadua-haupuensis-dwe

Photo: David W. Eickhoff; by courtesy of David W. Eickhoff

Native Plants Hawai’i
http://www.nativeplants.hawaii.edu

http://www.flickr.com/photos/50823119@N08

*********************

edited: 28.01.2017

Heliotropium curassavicum L.

Heliotropium curassavicum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names:

kipukai – Hawai’i Islands
lau po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands

********************

heliotropium-curassavicum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.

Chrysopogon aciculatus

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga
Fiji: Batiki, Beqa, Gau, Kanacea, Koro, Mago, Matuku, Moala, Moturiki, Rotuma, Taveuni, Totoya, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, West-Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Namu’a, Ta’u, Tutuila
Tokelau: Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Niuafo’ou

local names:

kase – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Thyrocopa kokeensis Medeiros

Kokee Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa kokeensis)

The Kokee Thyrocopa Moth, a rather small species described in the year 2009, is endemic to the island of Kaua’i.

The moth has a wingspan of about 1,6 to 1,8 cm, the forewings are mottled very light whitish grey or whitish-brown and grey or brown and clouded with several poorly defined blackish spots, the hindwings are light brown.

********************

References:

[1] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Cyrtandra kealiae Wawra

Cyrtandra kealiae

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names:

ha’iwale – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

There are two subspecies, the nominate race and Cyrtandra kealiae ssp. urceolata W. L. Wagner & Lorence, both are endemic to the island of Kaua’i.

Solanum americanum Mill.

Solanum americanum Mill.

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga
Fiji: Fulaga, Kadavu, Rotuma, Taveuni, Viti Levu, Yageta
Hawai’i Islands (?): Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midwayi, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes Reef
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island, Sail Rock (Hen and Chicken Islands), Kapiti Island, Kermadec Islands, North Island, Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands), South Island, Three Kings Islands, Tiritiri Matangi Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island, Phillip Island
Samoa: Fanuatapu (?), Nu’ulua (?), Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: Tongatapu

 

local names:

akari pipiro (?) – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
poporo– New Zealand
poroporo– Aitutaki, Mangaia, Rarotonga / Cook Islands; New Zealand
poroporo puaka– Ma’uke / Cook Islands
poro puaka– ‘Atiu, Mitiaro / Cook Islands
raupeti– New Zealand
remuroa– New Zealand

~~~

This species can be found in the tropical regions almost worldwide, though its native range probably comprises the coastal areas along the tropical Pacific of the Americas, Australia, Melanesia, and probably parts of Polynesia. [1]

The very variable species is about 1,5 m tall and bears small white flowers and glossy black berries.

*********************

References:

[1] Tiina Särkinen; Peter Poczai; Gloria E. Barboza; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Maria Baden; Sandra Knapp: A revision of the Old World Black Nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 106: 1-223. 2018

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 25.09.2018

Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich.) Steud.

Eragrostis variabilis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes

local names:

’emoloa – Hawai’i Islands
kalamalo – Hawai’i Islands
kawelu – Hawai’i Islands

Asplenium nidus L.

Asplenium nidus

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea
Fiji: Fulaga, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Moturiki, Namuka, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Qamea, Rotuma, Taveuni
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu; Kiribati: Palmyra, Teraina
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson, Oeno, Pitcairn
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Fafa, Oneata, Pangaimotu, Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Manihi, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niulakita, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, Motu Faioa, Motu Nukuhifalo, Motu Nukuhione, Motu Nukulua, ‘Uvea

local names:

ekaha – Hawai’i Islands
kota’a
– Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kota’a tua-rua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
kota’a panau – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
kota’a roroa – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
laugapapa – Samoa
laukotawa – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands
raukotaha – Manihiki, Raraka / Cook Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Lachnagrostis filiformis (G. Forst.) Trin.

Lachnagrostis filiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui: Motu Nui, Rapa Nui

local names: –

*********************

lachnagrostis-filiformis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr.

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Lakeba, Nayau, Nukulevu, Yanucalailai, Nacula, Nukulau, Makaluva, Moturiki, Nasoata, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Vomo, Vomo Lailai, Waya
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Mekiro, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Green Island, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands), North Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Motutapu, Nomuka, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Tau, Tufaka, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fangataufa, Hao, Hereheretue, Makatea
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names:

fue moa – Samoa
fue tahi– Tonga
kaka – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kaka pae-tai – Mangaia / Cook Islands
lawere – Fiji
lauivi – Fiji
lauwere – Fiji
pohue – Tongareva / Cook Islands
poue – Palmerston / Cook Islands
ra-pohue – Raraka / Cook Islands
rau-pohue tarona – Manihiki / Cook Islands
wa vui – Fiji
wa vulavula – Fiji
yale – Fiji
yaleyale – Fiji

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Geograpsus severnsi Paulay & Starmer

Hawaiian Land Crab (Geograpsus severnsi)

This species was scientifically described in the year 2011.

Subfossil remains of land crabs have been found on the major Hawaiian Islands for many years, but their identity was not clear. Researchers identified the crab as a new species by comparing physical characteristics with specimens from various collections.

The Hawaiian Land Crab is now known to have occured on all of the larger islands in the Hawaiian chain. The species reached a carapace size of about 6 cm and was therefore probably the largest in its genus.

The Hawaiian land crab species vanished at about 1000 A.D., shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers resp. of the new animals that the Polynesians brought to the islands (chickens, dogs, pigs and rats).

*********************

References:

[1] Gustav Paulay; John Starmer: Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6(5): e19916 DOI

Drepanis coccinea (Forster)

Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea)

The Iiwi belongs to the group of the so called drepanidine finches, a radiation of the Finch family, which is distributed exclusively on the Hawaiian archipelago and which has produced at least seventy species, of which, however, most have unfortunately been extirpated nowadays.

Even the Iiwi, which in the 20th century was still one of the most common of the surviving drepanidine finches, and which occured on all of the Hawaiian main islands, is now rare and has actually already disappeared from some of the islands (Lana’i, Ni’ihau).

The bird, which particularly feeds on nectar, is about 15 cm long and therefore belongs to the middle sized species within the group, the sexes are identical in color.

********************

drepanis-coccinea-fks

immature bird

drepanis-coccinea-fks1

adult bird

*********************

Photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Peperomia hesperomannii Wawra

Peperomia hesperomannii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

Plantago pachyphylla A. Gray

Plantago pachyphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

plantago-pachyphylla-oj

Photo: Oscar Johnson
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/henicorhina

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Viola chamissoniana Ging.

Viola chamissoniana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘olopu – Hawai’i Islands
pamakani – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

Viola chamissoniana nominate endemic to O’ahu
Viola chamissoniana ssp. robusta (Hillebr.) W. L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst & Sohmer endemic to Moloka’i
Viola chamissoniana ssp. tracheliifolia (Ging.) W. L. Wagner, D. R. Herbst & Sohmer occurs in Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu

Doodia kunthiana Gaudich.

Doodia kunthiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

*********************

blechnum-norfolkense-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

edited: 03.02.2018

Wikstroemia oahuensis (A. Gray) Rock

Wikstroemia oahuensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

~~~

Wikstroemia oahuensis var. palustris (Hochr.) Peterson only on Kaua’i

*********************

wikstroemia-oahuensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Oreobolus furcatus H. Mann

Alpine Bog Sedge (Oreobolus furcatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names: –

~~~

The Alpine Bog Sedge is a flat cushion plant, that occurs on some of the Hawaiian Islands, namely on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.

The species is restricted to high elevations, where it grows in so called alpine bogs.

The species occurs as well as a very small relict population on the island of Tahiti, where it is restricted to only two ridges of the Mt. Orohena, the highest mountain of Tahiti.

*********************

oreobolus-furcatus-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 09.10.2016

Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce

Nertera granadensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

nertera-granadensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Kamehameha lunalilo Kirklady

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug (Kamehameha lunalilo)

The genus Kamehameha (currently) contains three species, of which two are each restricted to a single island (Kaua’i, Nihoa).

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug, however, occurs obviously on all of the Hawaiian main islands, where it can be found among epiphytic mosses and fern, that cover the branches of the rainforest trees.

It is probably a predacious species.

*********************

References:

[1] Adam Asquith: Hawaiian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): The Evolution of Bugs and Thought. Pacific Science 51(4): 356-365. 1997
[2] Alfred G. Wheeler: Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, Predators, Opportunists. Comstock Pub Assoc, 2001

*********************

kamehameha-lunalilo-fhaw

Depiction from ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray

Eurya sandwicensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, O’ahu, Maui, Moloka’i

local names:

anini – Hawai’i Islands
wanini – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

eurya-sandwicensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Lipochaeta connata (Gaudich.) DC.

Lipochaeta connata

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Maui, Ni’ihau

local names: –

~~~

Lipochaeta connata ssp. connata (Gaudich.) DC.
Lipochaeta connata ssp. acris (Sherff) W. L. Wagner & H. Rob.

Cyperus pennatiformis Kük.

Cyperus pennatiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i (ex), Kaua’i (ex), Laysan, Maui (ex), O’ahu (ex)

local names: –

~~~

two varieties:

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii Kük.
Cyperus pennatiformis var. pennatiformis Kük. = possibly extinct

*********************

cyperus-p-v-bryanii-fks

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Phlegmariurus nutans (Brack.) W. H. Wagner

Phlegmariurus nutans

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Astelia waialealae Wawra

Astelia waialealae

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names: –

*********************

Photo: David Tonnessen
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/datnatureguy

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 18.09.2017

Huperzia erosa Beitel & W.H. Wagner

Huperzia erosa

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Asplenium kaulfussii Schltdl.

Asplenium kaulfussii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Asplenium caudatum G. Forst.

Asplenium caudatum

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Rarotonga
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti

local names: –

Boehmeria grandis (Hook. & Arn.) A. Heller

Boehmeria grandis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

Cyclosorus sandwicensis (Brack.) Copel.

Cyclosorus sandwicensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

*********************

cyclosorus-sandwicensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Cordia subcordata Lam.

Kou (Cordia subcordata)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Beachcomber Island; Beqa, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Macuata, Makaluva, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Moturiki, Nanuya Lailai, Nasoata, Navo, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wakaya, Yadua Taba, Yanucalailai
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Ni’ihau
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Birnie Island, Enderbury Island, Flint Island, Howland Island, Karoraina, McKean Island, Malden Island, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Rawaki, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands (?): Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Ofu (?), Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Moorea, Mopelia, Motu One, Tahaa, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Fakarava, Makatea, Manihi, Mataiva, Matureivavao, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Takapoto, Takume, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Vahanga
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niutao, Nui, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: ‘Uvea

local names:

bakanawa – Fiji
ilima – Kiribati
kanava – Tokelau; Nui, Vaitupu / Tuvalu; Futuna, ‘Uvea / Wallis & Futuna
kanave – Nukunonu / Tokelau
kiripoa – Tuamotu Archipelago
kou – Hawai’i Islands
man’ao – Rotuma / Fiji
marupua – Tuamotu Archipelago
motou – Niue
nawanawa – Fiji
pua – Tuamotu Archipelago
pua taukanave – ‘Eua / Tonga
taiuli – Olohega / Tokelau
tauanave – Samoa
te kanawa – Kiribati
tou – Austral Islands; Aitutaki, Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Mauke, Mitiaro, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva / Cook Islands; Marquesas; Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
wakanava – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The kou is an about 7 to 15 m tall tree with a broad densely leaved crown.

This species occurs over a wide geographical range, as it can be found on the islands of the Indian Ocean up to almost all of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. In Polynesia this species can be found on all island groups, except for New Zealand and Easter Island.

The wood of the tree was (and still is) used for various carvings, and also for the production of canoes or paddles, as long as a large enough tree could be found.

On the Hawai’i Islands the tannin-containing leaves were used to dye bark cloth tan, but also to colour fishing lines, to make them less visible to the fishes. In Kiribati again the leaves were primarily used as pig fodder.

The bright orange flowers are often used for floral wreaths, and the seeds have been eaten in times of famine.

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cordia-subcordata-rt

Photo: Ravahere Taputuarai

(under creative commons licence (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

cordia-subcordata-akk1

floral wreath, made of kou flowers

Photo: Dr. Angela K. Keppler; by courtesy of Dr. Angela K. Keppler

http://www.pbif.org

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edited: 19.09.2016

Melicope spathulata A. Gray

Melicope spathulata

Distribution:

Hawai’ Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

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References:

[1]

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edited: 12.12.2018

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Entada phaseoloides

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Leleuvia, Matuku, Moala, Moce, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya, Yanuca, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i
Kiribati: Palmyra Atoll
Marquesas: Tahuata
Niue

Samoa: Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Taha’a
Tonga: ‘Eua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

soni ni veikau – Fiji
wa damu – Fiji
wa lai – Fiji
wa taqiri – Fiji
wa tiqiri – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Doodia lyonii O. Deg.

Doodia lyonii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

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References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

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edited: 03.02.2018

Cyrtandra oenobarba H. Mann

Cyrtandra oenobarba

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names:

Adenostemma viscosum J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Adenostemma viscosum

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu
Cook Islands: Palmerston, Rarotonga
Fiji: Gau, Koro, Moturiki, Taveuni, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mo’orea, Tahiti
Tokelau: Olohega
Tonga: Kao, Tofua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u

local names:

tahahavai – Marquesas
tatamako – Marquesas

~~~

This species was probably brought to many parts of Polynesia by the first Polynesian settlers, but is likely indigenous at least to the western part of Polynesia.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

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adenostemma-viscosum-si-mnmh

Photo: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Dichanthelium hillebrandianum (Hitchc.) C. A. Clark & Gould

Dichanthelium hillebrandianum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.

Mamane (Sophora chrysophylla)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

mamane – Hawai’i Islands
mamani – Hawai’i Islands

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sophora-chrysophylla-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Hibiscadelphus woodii Lorence & W. L. Wagner

Hibiscadelphus woodii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i

local names:

hau kuahiwi – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

This species grew in the Kalalau Valley on the island of Kaua’i, where it was first discovered only in the year 1991 – at that time only four individuals were alive.

All attempts, to propagate these plants vegetatively in some way (by air layering, grafting or cuttings) failed.

The remaining shrubs indeed bloomed, and the  flowers were even visited by endemic, nectarivorous drepanid finches (Kauai Amakihi (Hemignathus kauaiensis Pratt)), but seed development was never observed.

~~~

The demise of the species was initiated by a large fallen boulder, which injured three of the last four individuals in such a way, that they, until 1998, died back completely.

The only remaining shrub was found on the 17 August 2011 to be dead as well.

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References:

[1] D. H. Lorence & W. L. Wagner: Another new, nearly extinct species of Hibiscadelphus (Malvaceae) from the Hawaiian Islands. Novon 5: 183-187. 1995
[2] Kenneth R. Wood: Possible Extinctions, Rediscoveries, and New Plant Records within the Hawaiian Islands. Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2011. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Lucius G. Eldredge. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 91-102. 2012

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edited:

10.10.2016