… self-fulfilling prophecies …

… self-fulfilling prophecies …

When I wrote my article: “The genus Hoya in Polynesia” about a year ago, I typed in the following words.:

“All of these ‘taxa’ are from Samoa alone, and there are probably more to come.”

~~~

Well, here they are, all described by the same author, all from Samoa, and all described in 2017 (and the year 2017 is now only 42 days old!!!)

Hoya artwhistlerii Kloppenb.
Hoya corollamarginata Kloppenb.
Hoya corollamarginata ssp. magiagiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya corollamarginata ssp. upoluensis Kloppenb.
Hoya fetuana ssp. sigaeleensis Kloppenb.
Hoya fetuana ssp. tutuilensis Kloppenb.
Hoya lanataiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya luatekensis Kloppenb.
Hoya olosegaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya patameaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya samoaalbiflora Kloppenb.
Hoya samoensis ssp. savai’iensis Kloppenb.
Hoya uafatoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya whistleri ssp. faleuluensis Kloppenb.

~~~

Please keep in mind: The abovementioned ‘species’ do not exist, they are willfully misidentified Hoya australis R. Br. ex J. Traill, Hoya betchei (Schltr.) W. A. Whistler, Hoya chlorantha Rech. and so on! The ‘author’ obviously describes the same three or four species again and again, and ends up with a mess of names … I’m still sure that there is much more to come.

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The genus Hoya in Polynesia

The genus Hoya in Polynesia

The genus Hoya is distributed in many parts of Asia to Australia and Oceania, it contains a largely unknown number of species, unknown because there are tremendous numbers of taxa that were and unfortunately still are described – most of them by a certain single person.

Here is a small account of them.:

Hoya faoensis Kloppenb. & Siar
Hoya fetuana Kloppenb.
Hoya fitoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya lanoto’oensis Kloppenb.
Hoya mata-ole-afiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya nuuuliensis Kloppenb. & Siar
Hoya ofuensis Kloppenb.
Hoya savaiiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya savaiiensis ssp. falealupoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya seanwhistleriana Kloppenb.
Hoya tiatuilaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya x tuafanua Whistler & Kloppenb.
Hoya whistleri Kloppenb.

All of these ‘taxa’ are from Samoa alone, and there are probably more to come.

~~~

But what is the problem?

Well, some of these plants were obviously described from cultivated material, and often even the slightest differences were used to describe the material as a new species.

So, actually no one really knows at this time how many true species exist, and this doesn’t only aply to Samoa.

But this ain’t the only problem!

The abovementioned ‘autor’ described Hoya x tuafanua in 2002 (Fraterna 15(3): 13. 2002), and then used exactly the same plant material in 2015 to describe another species, Hoya seanwhistleriana (Hoya New 4(2): 10-16. 2015).

What the heck is going on here?

~~~

Finally, just for ‘fun’, a full list of all Hoya taxa described from within Polynesia, as far as I know them.:

Hoya angustifolia J. Traill
Hoya artwhistlerii Kloppenb.
Hoya attenuata Christoph.
Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill
Hoya australis ssp. tenuipes (K. D. Hill) P. I. Forst. & Liddle
Hoya betchei (Schltr.) Whistler
Hoya bicarinata A. Gray
Hoya billardieri Decne.
Hoya chlorantha Rech.
Hoya chlorantha var. tutuilensis (Chr.) Whistler
Hoya corollamarginata Kloppenb.
Hoya corollamarginata ssp. magiagiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya corollamarginata ssp. upoluensis Kloppenb.
Hoya crassior Hochr.
Hoya dalrympliana F. Muell.
Hoya desvoeuxensis T. Green & Kloppenb.
Hoya diptera Seem.
Hoya faoensis Kloppenb. & Siar
Hoya fetuana Kloppenb.
Hoya fetuana ssp. sigaeleensis Kloppenb.
Hoya fetuana ssp. tutuilensis Kloppenb.
Hoya filiformis Rech.
Hoya fitoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya intermedia A. C. Sm.
Hoya lanataiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya lanoto’oensis Kloppenb.
Hoya luatekensis Kloppenb.
Hoya mata-ole-afiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya matavanuensis Kloppenb.
Hoya megalantha Turrill
Hoya nuuuliensis Kloppenb. & Siar
Hoya obscurinervia Merr.
Hoya ofuensis Kloppenb.
Hoya oligotricha ssp. tenuipes K. D. Hill
Hoya olosegaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya patameaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya pilosa Seem.
Hoya pottsii J. Traill
Hoya pottsii var. angustifolia (J. Traill) Tsiang & P. T. Li
Hoya pubescens Reinecke
Hoya pycnophylla Rech.
Hoya samoaalbiflora Kloppenb.
Hoya samoensis Seem.
Hoya samoensis ssp. savai’iensis Kloppenb.
Hoya savaiiensis Kloppenb.
Hoya savaiiensis ssp. falealupoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya seanwhistleriana Kloppenb.
Hoya smithii Kloppenb.
Hoya tamaleaaea Kloppenb.
Hoya tauensis Kloppenb.
Hoya tiatuilaensis Kloppenb.
Hoya trinervis J. Traill
Hoya x tuafanua Whistler & Kloppenb.
Hoya uafatoensis Kloppenb.
Hoya upoluensis Reinecke
Hoya upoluensis var. minor Rech.
Hoya vitiensis Turrill
Hoya whistleri Kloppenb.
Hoya whistleri ssp. faleuluensis Kloppenb.

*********************

References:

[1] Dale Kloppenburg: Samoan Hoya Species I-III. 2014
[2] Dale Kloppenburg: Hoya New 5(1): 1-64. 2015

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edited: 12.02.2017

Hoya upoluensis Reinecke

Hoya upoluensis

Distribution:

Samoa: Savai’i (?), ‘Upolu

local names:

fue manogi – ‘Upolu / Samoa

~~~

This species, including a proposed f. minor, was described in 1898, it was later given variety rank as Hoya upoluensis var. minor (Reinecke) Rech. in 1910, it is said to be smaller in all parts than the ‘normal’ form. [1][2]

The plant obviously occurs on the islands of Savai’i and ‘Upolu, Samoa, Hoya savaiiensis Kloppenb. (not to be mistaken with Hoya samoensis ssp. savai’iensis Kloppenb.) described in 2009 as coming from Savai’i may be the same species.

~~~

The supposed local name, fue manogi, means fragrant liana, and the flowers are indeed fragrant, they were used to scent coconut oil. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] F. Reinecke: Die Flora der Samoa-Inseln; II Teil: Siphonogamen. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 25: 578-708. 1898
[2] Karl Rechinger: Botanische und zoologische Ergebnisse einer wissenschaftlichen Forschungsreise nach den Samoainseln, dem Neuguinea-Archipel und den Salomonsinseln. III. Teil. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 85: 175-432. 1910

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edited: 16.02.2017

Hoya pottsii J. Traill

Hoya pottsii

Distribution:

Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila
Tonga: ‘Eua

local names:

fue sa – Samoa
fue selela – Samoa

~~~

The actual Hoya pottsii is obviously a Chinese endemic, so, does not occur anywhere else, the Samoan and the Tongan material thus cannot represent the same species.

The species, however, is mentioned in 1996 as being native to the island of ‘Eua, Tonga, and in 2006 as being native to American Samoa. [1][2]

Such material, originally identified as Hoya pottsii, was subsequently described as a new species, Hoya tiatuilaensis Kloppenb. in 2013. [3]

~~~

The true status of the plants (not being Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill) occurring on Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila, and ‘Eua are still to be clarified.

The depiction below shows the true Chinese Hoya pottsii.

*********************

References:

[1] Donald R. Drake; Timothy J. Motley; W. Arthur Whistler; Clyde T. Imada: Rain forest vegetation of ‘Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 65-77. 1996
[2] Diane Ragone; David H. Lorence: Botanical and ethnobotanical inventories of the National Park of American Samoa.  Pacific Cooperative Studies Unit Technical Report 170. University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa, Department of Botany. Honolulu, HI. 91 pg. 2006
[3] Dale Kloppenburg: Hoya New 1(2): 1-30. 2013

*********************

hoya-pottsii-jt

Depiction from: ‘James Traill: Accounts and Descriptions of the several Plants belonging to the Genus Hoya, which are cultivated in the Garden of the Horticultural Society at Chiswick. Transactions of the Royal Horticultural Society of London 7: 16-30. 1830’

(This image is in the public domain.)

*********************

edited: 17.02.2017

Hoya vitiensis Turrill

Hoya vitiensis

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names:

wa dra – Viti Levu / Fiji
wa tabua damudamu – Viti Levu / Fiji

~~~

This species is supposed to be endemic to the Fijian Islands, where it is known from Vanua Levu and Viti Levu, however, this or a very similar species also occurs on some of the Samoan Islands. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 4. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1988

Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill

Hoya australis

Distribution:

Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Namuka, Nasoata, Nawi, Nayau, Nukulau, Ono, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya, Yanucalevu
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Eua, Niuafo’ou, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Toketoke, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

bitabita – Fiji
bitibiti – Fiji
bitubitu – Fiji
bulibuli sewaro – Fiji
bulibuli sivaro (?) – Fiji
drau bibi – Fiji
fue sa – Samoa
fue selela – Samoa
hoi – Rotuma / Fiji
laumatolu – ‘Eua / Tonga
nabetebete – Fiji
nabetiabete – Fiji
olive vao – Tutuila / Samoa
sinu – Futuna / Wallis & Futuna
suni – Samoa
wa bi – Fiji
wa bibi – Fiji
wa bi levu – Fiji
wa tabua – Fiji

~~~

This species occurs from Australia to western Polynesia, it is divided into several subspecies, of which two are known to occur within the Polynesian region. The nominate race occurs in Fiji as well as in Wallis & Futuna, while the other subspecies, Hoya australis ssp. tenuipes (K. D. Hill) P. I. Forst. & Liddle occurs in Samoa and Tonga.

The species probably hybridizes with other species, one such hybrid (with Hoya chlorantha Rech.) was described from Tutuila, Samoa as Hoya x tuafanua Whistler & Kloppenburg.

*********************

References:

[1] Berthold Seemann: Flora Vitiensis: Adescription of the plants of the Viti or Fiji Islands with an account of their history, uses, and properties. London: L. Reeve 1865-73
[2] Harold St. John; Albert C. Smith: The Vascular Plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands. Pacific Science 25(3): 313-348. 1971
[3] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 4. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1988
[4] Donald R. Drake; Timothy J. Motley; W. Arthur Whistler; Clyde T. Imada: Rain forest vegetation of ‘Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 65-77. 1996

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hoya-australis-savaii-sh

Photo: S. Hashizume, 2008

http://jocv183199.web.fc2.com

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edited: 11.10.2016