Tag Archives: Hawai’i

Asplenium lobulatum Mett.

Asplenium lobulatum

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Savai’i, ‘Upolu

local names: –

Asplenium trichomanes L.

Asplenium trichomanes

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui
New Zealand: North Island; South Island

local names: –

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Three subspecies are known to occur within the Polynesian region, of which only one is endemic.

The nominate race occurs in Australia and on New Zealand’s North- and South Islands, the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. densum (Brack.) W. H. Wagner is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, while the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens Meyer, which is native to Australia and Europe, is known from a few population on New Zealand’s North Island.

Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.

Clay’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus furcellatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiahala – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiohala – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele wai – Hawai’i Islands

Chloridops kona Wilson

Kona Grosbeak (Chloridops kona)

The Kona Grosbeak was discovered at the end of the 19th century, at that time it was restricted to a tiny, only about 10 km² large area in the north of the Kona district on the island of Hawai’i.

This rather plump and inconspicuous looking bird fed almost exclusively on the dried seeds of the Naio tree (Myoporum sandwicense (A. Gray)), and could often be located by the cracking sound of its feeding.

R. C. L. Perkins was one of the few people, that saw the bird in life, he wrote about it in the year 1893.:

The Palila (Chloridops kona), though an interesting bird on account of its peculiar structure, is a singularly uninteresting one in its habits. It is a dull, sluggish, solitary bird, and very silent – its whole existence may be summed up in the words “to eat.” Its food consists of the seeds of the fruit of the aaka (bastard sandal-tree [Myoporum sandwicense (A. Gray)], and probably in other seasons of those of the sandal-wood tree), and as these are very minute, its whole time seems to be taken up in cracking the extremely hard shells of this fruit, for which its extraordinarily powerful beak and heavy head have been developed. I think there must have been hundreds of the small white kernels in those that I examined. The incessant cracking of the fruits when one of these birds is feeding, the noise of which can be heard for a considerable distance, renders the bird much easier to see than it otherwise would be. … I never heard it sing (once mistook the young Rhodacanthis’ song for that of Chloridops), but my boy informed me that he had heard it once, and its song was not like that of Rhodacanthis. Only once did I see it display any real activity, when a male and female were in active pursuit of one another amongst the sandal-trees. Its beak is nearly always very dirty, with a brown substance adherent to it, which must be derived from the sandal-tree.

Note, that the name Palila is actually the Hawaiian vernacular name for another drepanidine bird species – Loxioides bailleui (Oustalet).

The last living Kona Grosbeaks were seen in the year 1894.

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Notes on Collecting in Kona. The Ibis 6(5): 101-111. 1893
[2] D. Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986
[3] H. D. Pratt; P. L. Bruner; D. G. Berrett: A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press 1987
[4] E. Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987
[5] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

by courtesy of Erin Clements Rushing

http://www.sil.si.edu

Pisonia umbellifera (J. R. & G. Forst.) Seem.

Pisonia umbellifera

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Aiwa, Koro, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yagasa
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua

local names:

daiga – Fiji
papala – Hawai’i Islands
papala kepau – Hawai’i Islands
para para – Cook Islands
raro – Vanua Levu / Fiji
roro – Vanua Levu / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Dryophthorus distinguendus Perkins

Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil (Dryophthorus distinguendus)

The Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil was described in the year 1900.

The species was found first on the island of Laysan, namely in wooden boxes that came from the main islands. It was subsequently found also on nearly all of the other Hawaiian Islands (Hawai’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, and O’ahu), but appears in lists of extinct species, which, in my opinion, is quite strange.

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Coleoptera, Weevils. Bishop Museum Bulletin 31: 53-66. 1926

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia repens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes
Kiribati: Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden Island, Starbuck Island, Vostok Island
Marquesas: Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka
Niue (?)
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila

local names:

alena – Hawai’i Islands
anena – Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
te wao – Kiribati

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Haliophyle connexa (Warren)

Haliophyle connexa

This species is endemic to the island of Hawai’i, where it is known from the area around Olaa at an elevation of about 610 m, nothing else is known about this species.

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References:

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

Cyrtandra lysiocepala (A. Gray) C. B. Clarke

Cyrtandra lysiocepala

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.

Metrosideros polymorpha

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘ahihi ku ma kua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ahihi lehua – Hawai’i Islands
kumakua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
lehua papa – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The ‘ohi’a lehua is by far the most common of the endemic tree species on the Hawaiian Islands and inhabits many areas on all of the main islands.

The species is highly variable, being usually a tall tree, but sometimes a small cushion-like shrub, and is thus split into eight varieties, these include:

Metrosideros polymorpha var. dieteri J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to Kaua’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. macrophylla (Rock) H. St. John only on Hawai’i and Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. newellii (Rock) H. St. John endemic to Hawai’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. polymorpha Gaudich. found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pseudorugosa (Skottsb.) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to western Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pumila (A. Heller) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. found on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

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The flowers of the ‘ohi’a lehua are usually red in color, but there are also orange- and yellow-flowering individuals. The nectar-rich flowers are one of the most important food resources, not only for various endemic and native insect species, but also for the few remaining endemic honeycreepers.

The ‘ohi’a lehua is a pioneer species on solidified lava, its dead leaves build the first fertile soil and therewith the basic conditions for further plant life. The tree is furthermore a very important basic component of another habitat, which, in such a way, is found only on the Hawaiian Islands – lava tubes. The roots of the trees, growing above such a lava tube, dangle from the ceiling of the tube, allowing rainwater to drip in, and furthermore build the basis of a food chain for an enormous number of specialized, cavernicolous arthropod species.

The wood is very hard and was in former times used for the construction of houses and temples (heiau), and of course for many other purposes, the bright red flowers (lehua), as well as the reddish colored new leaf shoots (liko) were/are used to make lei.

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References:

[1] N. DeBoer; E. A. Stacy: Divergence within and among 3 varieties of the endemic tree, ‘Ohi’a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the eastern slope of Hawai’i Island. Journal of Herdity 104(4): 1-10. 2013
[2] E. A. Stacy; J. B. Johansen; T. Sakishima; D. K. Price; Y. Pillon: Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha. Heredity (Edinb) 113(4): 334-342. 2014

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Asteia montgomeryi Hardy

Montgomery’s Asteiid Fly (Asteia montgomeryi)

This species was described in the year 1980, this is one of the few species within this genus, that seems to be endemic to a single island within the Hawaiian chain.

The larvae are known to develop inside the rotting stems of dead Wiliwili trees (Erythrina sandwichensis O. Deg.).

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References:

[1] Patrick M. O´Grady; Karl Nicholas Magnacca: Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New distributional records for endemic Asteia (Asteiidae). Biodiversity Data Journal 2: e1010. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.2.e1010

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl

Lace Fern (Microlepia strigosa)

Distribution:

Fiji
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names:

nehe nehe – Rapa Nui
palai – Hawai’i Islands
palapalai – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The Lace Fern is distributed in many parts of Asia, within the Polynesian region it occurs on Tahiti, Society Islands as well as on Rapa Nui. The species can also be found on the Hawaiian main islands, where on the island of Maui, an endemic variety, Microlepia strigosa var. mauiensis (W. H. Wagner) D. D. Palmer, is known to exist, which was formerly thought to be a distinct species, and which can be distinguished from the typical variety by its hairy fronds.

The Hawaiian name for this species is palai resp. palapalai, its fronds were used in ancient times to decorate the altars of laka, the hula goddess, as well as for making lei.

In Rapa Nui the species is named nehe nehe, a term that is used for almost all fern species.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium (Gaudich.) Anderb.

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

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var. hawaiiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. kilaueanum (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. molokaiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner

Melicope pseudoanisata (Rock) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Melicope pseudoanisata

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

Metrarga elinguis Ashlock

Mute Seed Bug (Metrarga elinguis)

The genus Metrarga currently consists of only five species, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago.

~~~

This species was described in the year 1966.

The males are about 0,6 to 0,7 cm long, the females are slightly larger.

The Mute Seed Bug occurs exclusively on the island of Hawai’i, where it can be found on ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) and probably also on other native Hawaiian plant species.

Nesotocus giffardi Perkins

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil (Nesotocus giffardi)

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil is found on the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu.

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The genus Nesotocus, which contains four species, is now placed within the subfamily Molytinae, with the most closely related species living in Australia and New Zealand.

The males of all species can easily be distinguished from the females by their longer legs, and especially by the position of their antennae, these are placed in the anterior third of the rostrum, while in the females the antennae are placed further towards the posterior third.

The larvae of all species bore in the wood of dead olapa trees (Cheirodendron trigynum (Gaudich.) Heller) on which they feed upon, the pupation takes place inside a chamber (pupal cell), which can be detected by a distinct hole on the outside of the wood.

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References:

[1] John Colburn Bridwell: Notes on Nesotocus Giffardi Perkins (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 4(1): 250-256. 1918
[2] Sadie A. Solomon: Systematics of the Hawaiian endemic weevil genus Nesotocus Perkins 1900 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Student Competition Display Presentations, Section A. Systematics, Morphology, and Evolution 2003

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Astelia menziesiana Sm.

Astelia menziesiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kaluaha – Hawai’i Islands
pa’iniu – Hawai’i Islands
pua akuhinia – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 18.09.2017

Megalagrion blackburni McLachlan

Blackburn’s Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion blackburni)

This species reaches a body length of slightly more than 6 cm and is thus the largest member of its family on the Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae of this species develop, like most other dragonfly species, in freshwater, the larvae of other members of this genus, which contains at least 30 species, however, sometimes live terrestrial (on ground) or arboreal (in trees). [1]

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The adults of several species in this genus show the quite unusual behavior of feigning death when caught (see photograph). [2]

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 2; Apterygota to Thysanoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1948
[2] Francis G. Howarth; William P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link

Pellaea ternifolia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kalamoho – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cenchrus agrimonioides Trin.

Cenchrus agrimonioides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kure (ex), Lana’i, Laysan (ex), Maui, Moloka’i, Midway (ex), O’ahu

local names: –

kamanomano – Hawai’i Islands
kumanomano – Hawai’i Islands

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The extinct populations that formerly occurred on some of the northwestern islands (Kure, Laysan, Midway) are sometimes regarded to as a distinct variety, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis F. Br..

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edited: 23.06.2017

Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trevis.

Huperzia serrata

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, O’ahu, Moloka’i
Samoa: Savai’i
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names: –

Cyperus hillebrandii Boeck.

Cyperus hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

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two varieties:

Cyperus hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebr.) Kük.
Cyperus hillebrandii var. hillebrandii Boeck.

Campsicnemus prestoni Evenhuis

Preston’s Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus prestoni)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

***

Preston’s Long-legged Fly was described in 2007, it is endemic to Hawai’i, where it apparently inhabits several kipuka near the saddle Road on the slopes of Mauna Loa.

The species reaches a length of up to 0,2 cm, its head is shining dark brown, the clypeus and face are brown, the thorax is brown throughout, the abdomen is brown as well and beras short hairs dorsally on each tergite, the legs are yellowish brown. The wings are up to o, 23 cm long and subhyaline. Males and females are similar. [1]

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References:

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: New Hawaiian Campsicnemus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Lucius G. Eldredge. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 95: 9-16. 2007

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edited: 24.12.2018

Clermontia waimeae Rock

Clermontia waimeae

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

Hyposmocoma tetraonella (Walsingham)

Tetraonella Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma tetraonella)

This species, which has been scientifically described in the year 1907, was found in the Kona region on the island of Hawai’i at an elevation of about 1200 m.

The biology of this species is completely unknown so far.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978

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hyposmocoma-tetraonella-fh

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Clermontia clermontioides (Gaudich.) A. Heller

Clermontia clermontioides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

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two subspecies, (nominate and Clermontia clermontioides ssp. rockiana (E. Wimm.) Lammers), both endemic to Hawai’i

Alucita objurgatella (Walsingham)

Alahee Many-plumed Moth (Alucita objurgatella)

This species was described in the year 1907, it reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm.

The Alahee Many-plumed Moth is thus far known only from the Hawaiian Islands, more precisely from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu – however, Elwood C. Zimmerman writes in 1958 in ‘Insects of Hawaii’: “I believe that this species is not a member of the native fauna and that it will some day be reported from its true home outside of Hawaii.”.

The larvae feed on the flower buds, fruits, and seeds of the native Alahe’e shrub (Psydrax odorata (G. Forst.) A. C. Sm. & S. P. Darwin), and are parasitized by various native parasitic wasp species, including the Metallic Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)) and the Hawaiian Ichneumon Wasp (Pristomerus hawaiiensis Perkins).

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

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alucita-objurgatella-fhaw

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Caesalpinia bonduc

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa
Fiji: Leleuvia, Makaluva, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukuci, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Rotuma, Sawa-i-lau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yasawa
Gambier Islands: Kamaka
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Laysan, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Ata, Fafa, Foa, Niuatoputapu, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Tongatapu

local names:

anaoso – Samoa
hihikolo – Hawai’i Islands
kakalaioa – Hawai’i Islands
soni – Vanua Levu / Fiji
tartar mann – Rotuma / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Lakeba, Nayau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: North Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

asaua – Samoa
tuanu’e – Mangaia, Ma’uke, Raraka / Cook Islands
tuenu’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
uluhe – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 10.04.2019

Psychotria hawaiiensis (A. Gray) Fosb.

Psychotria hawaiiensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

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three varieties, nominate, Psychotria hawaiiensis var. hillebrandii (Rock) Fosb. and Psychotria hawaiiensis var. scoriacea (Rock) Fosb.

Callistopteris baldwinii (D. C. Eaton) Copel.

Callistopteris baldwinii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

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This species appears to be endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

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References:

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Jean-Yves Dubuisson; Kunio Iwatsuki; Sabine Hennequin; Motomi Ito: A taxonomic revision of Hymenophyllaceae. Blumea 52(2): 1-60. 2006

Trupanea celaenoptera Hardy

Brown-winged Fruit Fly (Trupanea celaenoptera Hardy)

The Brown-winged Fruit Fly from the island of Hawai’i is related to the Black-winged Fruit Fly (Trupanea nigripennis Hardy).

The species reaches a length of about 0,42 cm and has about 0,44 cm long, almost completely brown colored wings.

The larvae of this species feed on the plant tissue of several (?) Dubautia spp., whereby they cause galls on the stems of the plants they afflict.

~~~

The larvae themselves again, are obviously parasitized by the native Metallic Glossy Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)).

*********************

edited: 14.02.2017

Thyrocopa alterna Walsingham

Unarmed Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa alterna)

This species is known to occur on the islands of Hawai’i and Maui.

The species reaches wingspans from 1,6 to 3 cm, with the individuals from Hawai’i generally being larger than those from Maui.

~~~

Following a revision of the genus in 2009 two forms formerly treated as distinct species are now included within this species, Thyrocopa adumbrata Walsingham and Thyrocopa inermis Walsingham.

********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Cyclosorus pendens (D. D. Palmer) N. Snow

Cyclosorus pendens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

Melicope hawaiensis (Wawra) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Melicope hawaiensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Lana’i

local names: –

*********************

melicope-hawaiiensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Cyrtandra platyphylla A. Gray

Cyrtandra platyphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

cyrtandra-platyphylla-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Selaginella arbuscula (Kaulf.) Spring

Selaginella arbuscula

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

imu kea – Nuku Hiva / Marquesas
lepelepe a moa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

selaginella-arbuscula-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Panicum pellitum Trin.

Panicum pellitum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Ni’ihau

local names: –

*********************

panicum-pellitum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Coprosma ernodeoides A. Gray

Coprosma ernodeoides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

coprosma-ernodeoides-fks

coprosma-ernodeoides-fks1

Photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Waltheria indica L.

Waltheria indica

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou

local names:

‘ala’ala pu loa – Hawai’i Islands
hala ‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands
hi’aloa – Hawai’i Islands
kaepu – Marquesas
kanakaloa – Hawai’i Islands
puehu – Marquesas
puepu – Marquesas
puunehu – Marquesas
‘uhaloa – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

waltheria-indica-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Cyrtandra nanawaleensis H. St. John

Cyrtandra nanawaleensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Portulaca lutea Sol. ex G. Forst.

Portulaca lutea

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Marotiri Rocks, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Bacon Island, Mabualau, Rotuma
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Aukena, Gaioio, Kouaku, Makaroa, Mangareva, Taravai, Taraururoa, Tekava, Temoe, Vaiatekeue
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Gardner Pinnacles, Hawai’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Molokini, Necker, Nihoa, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker, Birnie, Enderbury, Howland, Jarvis, Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden, Manra, McKean, Nikumaroro, Orona, Rawaki, Starbuck, Tabuaeran
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Motu Iti, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island
Rapa Nui: Motu Motiro Hiva
Samoa: Namu’a (?), Nu’ulua, Ofu, Olosega, Rose Atoll, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, , Motu One, Ra’iatea, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu
Tonga: Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Ahe, Ahunui, Anaa, Apataki, Arutua, Fakahina, Fakarava, Fangatau, Fangataufa, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Maria, Moruroa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutipipi, Paraoa, Pukapuka, Rangiroa, Raroia, Reao, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tenarunga, Tepoto Nord, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahanga, Vanavana
Tuvalu: Nui

local names:

katuri – Tongareva / Cook Islands
pokea – Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
pokea muramura – Miti’aro / Cook Islands

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Heliotropium curassavicum L.

Heliotropium curassavicum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names:

kipukai – Hawai’i Islands
lau po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
po’opo’ohina – Niihau / Hawai’i Islands

********************

heliotropium-curassavicum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Carex macloviana ssp. subfusca (Boott) T. Koyama

Carex macloviana ssp. subfusca

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Solanum americanum Mill.

Solanum americanum Mill.

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga
Fiji: Fulaga, Kadavu, Rotuma, Taveuni, Viti Levu, Yageta
Hawai’i Islands (?): Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midwayi, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes Reef
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island, Sail Rock (Hen and Chicken Islands), Kapiti Island, Kermadec Islands, North Island, Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands), South Island, Three Kings Islands, Tiritiri Matangi Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island, Phillip Island
Samoa: Fanuatapu (?), Nu’ulua (?), Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: Tongatapu

 

local names:

akari pipiro (?) – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
poporo– New Zealand
poroporo– Aitutaki, Mangaia, Rarotonga / Cook Islands; New Zealand
poroporo puaka– Ma’uke / Cook Islands
poro puaka– ‘Atiu, Mitiaro / Cook Islands
raupeti– New Zealand
remuroa– New Zealand

~~~

This species can be found in the tropical regions almost worldwide, though its native range probably comprises the coastal areas along the tropical Pacific of the Americas, Australia, Melanesia, and probably parts of Polynesia. [1]

The very variable species is about 1,5 m tall and bears small white flowers and glossy black berries.

*********************

References:

[1] Tiina Särkinen; Peter Poczai; Gloria E. Barboza; Gerard M. van der Weerden; Maria Baden; Sandra Knapp: A revision of the Old World Black Nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae). PhytoKeys 106: 1-223. 2018

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 25.09.2018

Metrosideros macropus Hook. & Arn.

Metrosideros macropus

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu

local names:

lehua – O’ahu / Hawai’i Islands
lehua mamo – O’ahu / Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – O’ahu / Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a – O’ahu / Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – O’ahu / Hawai’i Islands

~~~

This yellow-flowering species is endemic to the Ko’olau Mountains on the island of O’ahu.

*********************

metrosideros-macropus-km

Photo: Karl Magnacca

(under creative commons license (2,5))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5

Eragrostis variabilis (Gaudich.) Steud.

Eragrostis variabilis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes

local names:

’emoloa – Hawai’i Islands
kalamalo – Hawai’i Islands
kawelu – Hawai’i Islands

Asplenium nidus L.

Asplenium nidus

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea
Fiji: Fulaga, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Moturiki, Namuka, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Qamea, Rotuma, Taveuni
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu; Kiribati: Palmyra, Teraina
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson, Oeno, Pitcairn
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Fafa, Oneata, Pangaimotu, Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Manihi, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niulakita, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, Motu Faioa, Motu Nukuhifalo, Motu Nukuhione, Motu Nukulua, ‘Uvea

local names:

ekaha – Hawai’i Islands
kota’a
– Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kota’a tua-rua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
kota’a panau – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
kota’a roroa – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
laugapapa – Samoa
laukotawa – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands
raukotaha – Manihiki, Raraka / Cook Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Drosophila alsophila Hardy & Kaneshiro

Banded Picturewing Fly (Drosophila alsophila)

The Banded Picturewing Fly is believed to be extinct, it is known from two localities at the Hualalai volcano on the island of Hawai’i and was always rare.

The flies placed their eggs on the woody stems of plants of the genera Charpentiera and Urera, on whose decaying bark their larvae fed.

An exact extinction date cannot be given.

*********************

edited: 05.10.2016

Lachnagrostis filiformis (G. Forst.) Trin.

Lachnagrostis filiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
New Zealand: Chatham Islands; Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui: Motu Nui, Rapa Nui

local names: –

*********************

lachnagrostis-filiformis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr.

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Lakeba, Nayau, Nukulevu, Yanucalailai, Nacula, Nukulau, Makaluva, Moturiki, Nasoata, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Vomo, Vomo Lailai, Waya
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Mekiro, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Green Island, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands), North Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Motutapu, Nomuka, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Tau, Tufaka, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fangataufa, Hao, Hereheretue, Makatea
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names:

fue moa – Samoa
fue tahi– Tonga
kaka – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kaka pae-tai – Mangaia / Cook Islands
lawere – Fiji
lauivi – Fiji
lauwere – Fiji
pohue – Tongareva / Cook Islands
poue – Palmerston / Cook Islands
ra-pohue – Raraka / Cook Islands
rau-pohue tarona – Manihiki / Cook Islands
wa vui – Fiji
wa vulavula – Fiji
yale – Fiji
yaleyale – Fiji

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Geograpsus severnsi Paulay & Starmer

Hawaiian Land Crab (Geograpsus severnsi)

This species was scientifically described in the year 2011.

Subfossil remains of land crabs have been found on the major Hawaiian Islands for many years, but their identity was not clear. Researchers identified the crab as a new species by comparing physical characteristics with specimens from various collections.

The Hawaiian Land Crab is now known to have occured on all of the larger islands in the Hawaiian chain. The species reached a carapace size of about 6 cm and was therefore probably the largest in its genus.

The Hawaiian land crab species vanished at about 1000 A.D., shortly after the arrival of the first Polynesian settlers resp. of the new animals that the Polynesians brought to the islands (chickens, dogs, pigs and rats).

*********************

References:

[1] Gustav Paulay; John Starmer: Evolution, Insular Restriction, and Extinction of Oceanic Land Crabs, Exemplified by the Loss of an Endemic Geograpsus in the Hawaiian Islands. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6(5): e19916 DOI

Vigna adenantha (G. F. W. Meyer) Maréchal, Mascherpa & Stainier

Vigna adenantha

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Miti’aro, Rarotonga
Fiji: Kadavu, Nukulau, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names:

wa doka – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Drepanis coccinea (Forster)

Iiwi (Drepanis coccinea)

The Iiwi belongs to the group of the so called drepanidine finches, a radiation of the Finch family, which is distributed exclusively on the Hawaiian archipelago and which has produced at least seventy species, of which, however, most have unfortunately been extirpated nowadays.

Even the Iiwi, which in the 20th century was still one of the most common of the surviving drepanidine finches, and which occured on all of the Hawaiian main islands, is now rare and has actually already disappeared from some of the islands (Lana’i, Ni’ihau).

The bird, which particularly feeds on nectar, is about 15 cm long and therefore belongs to the middle sized species within the group, the sexes are identical in color.

********************

drepanis-coccinea-fks

immature bird

drepanis-coccinea-fks1

adult bird

*********************

Photos: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Nesophrosyne aakokohaikea Bennett

Pale-veined Kanawao Leafhopper (Nesophrosyne aakokohaikea)

The Pale-veined Kanawao Leafhopper is a dark colored species with some pale yellow spots and lines on the wings that form a somewhat face-like pattern when the wings are closed.

The males reach a size of about 0,4 cm, the females are about 0,55 cm large.

This species was described in the year 2011.

It is restricted to the south eastern slope of Mauna Loa on the island of Hawai’i, where it can be found on the leaves of its sole host plant, the kanawao (Broussaisia arguta Gaudich.).

*********************

References:

[1] Gordon M. Bennett; Patrick M. O’Grady: Review of the native Hawaiian leafhopper genus Nesophrosyne (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) with descriptions of eight new species associated with Broussaisia arguta. Zootaxa, 2805: 1-25. 2011

Hylaeus simplex (Perkins)

Hawaii Yellow-masked Bee (Hylaeus simplex)

In the beginning of the 20th century the Hawaii Yellow-masked Bee was one of the most common members of its genus and could be found almost everywhere on its home island, from sea level up to the mountain rainforests.

Nevertheless the species is now considered extinct, whereby the reasons for its decline and, in the end, complete extinction are absolutely unknown.

*********************

References:

[1] Howell V. Daly; Elwood Curtin Zimmerman; Karl N. Magnacca: ‘Insects of Hawaii; Volume 17; Hawaiian Hylaeus (Nesoprosopis) Bees (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). 2003
[2] K. N. Magnacca: Species Profile: Hylaeus simplex. In Shepherd, M. D. M. Vaughan, and S. H. Black (Eds.) Red List of Pollinator Insects of North America. The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland, Oregon 2005

Plantago pachyphylla A. Gray

Plantago pachyphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

plantago-pachyphylla-oj

Photo: Oscar Johnson
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/henicorhina

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Doodia kunthiana Gaudich.

Doodia kunthiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

*********************

blechnum-norfolkense-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

edited: 03.02.2018

Nertera granadensis (Mutis ex L. f.) Druce

Nertera granadensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

nertera-granadensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Genophantis leahi Swezey

Akoko Pyralid Moth (Genophantis leahi)

The Akoko Pyralid Moth was described in the year 1910.

The species, which had a wingspan of 1,8 to 2 cm, occurred on at least four of the Hawaiian Islands, namely Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i, and O’ahu.

The caterpillars of this species fed abundantly on the leaves of the native akoko (Euphorbia degeneri Sherff), but were also found on the introduced Euphorbia hirta L.. The caterpillars hid themselves in self-made nets along the stems as well as between adjacent leaves, they fed upon one surface and the mesophyll of the leaf, but left the other epidermis untouched, hence, their presence on the plant was indicated by webbed dead leaves.

~~~

The Akoko Pyralid Moth is now considered extinct, the reasons, however, are not known – but the author of the species states in the species description.:

Limnerium blackburni [Diadegma blackburni (Cameron)] is quite common as a parasite on the larvae of this moth. From a batch of larvae collected, usually more parasites are reared than moths.”

Maybe there was some kind of an imbalance between this parasitoid wasp species and its host that led to the extinction of the latter.

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

genophantis-leahi-phes

Depiction from: ‘Otto H. Sweezey: Some New Species of Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 2: 103-106. 1908-1912’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Kamehameha lunalilo Kirklady

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug (Kamehameha lunalilo)

The genus Kamehameha (currently) contains three species, of which two are each restricted to a single island (Kaua’i, Nihoa).

Lunalilo’s Capsid Bug, however, occurs obviously on all of the Hawaiian main islands, where it can be found among epiphytic mosses and fern, that cover the branches of the rainforest trees.

It is probably a predacious species.

*********************

References:

[1] Adam Asquith: Hawaiian Miridae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera): The Evolution of Bugs and Thought. Pacific Science 51(4): 356-365. 1997
[2] Alfred G. Wheeler: Biology of the Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae): Pests, Predators, Opportunists. Comstock Pub Assoc, 2001

*********************

kamehameha-lunalilo-fhaw

Depiction from ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Polystichum haleakalense Brack.

Polystichum haleakalense

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

polystichum-haleakalense-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Eurya sandwicensis A. Gray

Eurya sandwicensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, O’ahu, Maui, Moloka’i

local names:

anini – Hawai’i Islands
wanini – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

eurya-sandwicensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Panicum xerophilum (Hillebr.) Hitchc.

Panicum xerophilum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

panicum-xerophilum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Tetramolopium arenarium (A. Gray) Hillebr.

Tetramolopium arenarium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui (ex)

local names: –

~~~

Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. arenarium (A. Gray) Hillebr.
Tetramolopium arenarium ssp. laxum Lowrey

Cyperus pennatiformis Kük.

Cyperus pennatiformis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i (ex), Kaua’i (ex), Laysan, Maui (ex), O’ahu (ex)

local names: –

~~~

two varieties:

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii Kük.
Cyperus pennatiformis var. pennatiformis Kük. = possibly extinct

*********************

cyperus-p-v-bryanii-fks

Cyperus pennatiformis var. bryanii

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Huperzia erosa Beitel & W.H. Wagner

Huperzia erosa

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Asplenium kaulfussii Schltdl.

Asplenium kaulfussii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Asplenium caudatum G. Forst.

Asplenium caudatum

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Rarotonga
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti

local names: –

Boehmeria grandis (Hook. & Arn.) A. Heller

Boehmeria grandis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

Omiodes euryprora Meyrick

Olaa Banana Leaf-roller (Omiodes euryprora)

The Olaa Banana Leaf-roller was found in the Ola’a rainforest on the island of Hawai’i and was described in the year 1899.

The moth reached a wingspan of about 2,5 cm.

The larvae were exclusively found on the leaves of banana plants, which however are not native to the Hawaiian Islands but were introduced to the islands by the Polynesian settlers. That means on the one hand, that the native larval host plant/plants is/are unknown, and on the other hand, that this species was able to adapt to new species of host plants.

It is possible that this moth species is not extinct, as it was thought for a long time.

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 8; Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] William P. Haines; Jon Giffin; David Foote: Rediscovery of five species of Omiodes Guenée (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on Hawai’i Island. Bishop Occasional Papers 79: 45-49. 2003

*********************

omiodes-euryprora-fhaw

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913’

(horizontally flipped)

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

*********************

edited: 20.09.2016

Cyclosorus sandwicensis (Brack.) Copel.

Cyclosorus sandwicensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

*********************

cyclosorus-sandwicensis-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Cordia subcordata Lam.

Kou (Cordia subcordata)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Beachcomber Island; Beqa, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Macuata, Makaluva, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Moturiki, Nanuya Lailai, Nasoata, Navo, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wakaya, Yadua Taba, Yanucalailai
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Ni’ihau
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Birnie Island, Enderbury Island, Flint Island, Howland Island, Karoraina, McKean Island, Malden Island, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Rawaki, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands (?): Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Ofu (?), Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Moorea, Mopelia, Motu One, Tahaa, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Fakarava, Makatea, Manihi, Mataiva, Matureivavao, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Takapoto, Takume, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Vahanga
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niutao, Nui, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: ‘Uvea

local names:

bakanawa – Fiji
ilima – Kiribati
kanava – Tokelau; Nui, Vaitupu / Tuvalu; Futuna, ‘Uvea / Wallis & Futuna
kanave – Nukunonu / Tokelau
kiripoa – Tuamotu Archipelago
kou – Hawai’i Islands
man’ao – Rotuma / Fiji
marupua – Tuamotu Archipelago
motou – Niue
nawanawa – Fiji
pua – Tuamotu Archipelago
pua taukanave – ‘Eua / Tonga
taiuli – Olohega / Tokelau
tauanave – Samoa
te kanawa – Kiribati
tou – Austral Islands; Aitutaki, Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Mauke, Mitiaro, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva / Cook Islands; Marquesas; Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
wakanava – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The kou is an about 7 to 15 m tall tree with a broad densely leaved crown.

This species occurs over a wide geographical range, as it can be found on the islands of the Indian Ocean up to almost all of the islands in the Pacific Ocean. In Polynesia this species can be found on all island groups, except for New Zealand and Easter Island.

The wood of the tree was (and still is) used for various carvings, and also for the production of canoes or paddles, as long as a large enough tree could be found.

On the Hawai’i Islands the tannin-containing leaves were used to dye bark cloth tan, but also to colour fishing lines, to make them less visible to the fishes. In Kiribati again the leaves were primarily used as pig fodder.

The bright orange flowers are often used for floral wreaths, and the seeds have been eaten in times of famine.

*********************

cordia-subcordata-rt

Photo: Ravahere Taputuarai

(under creative commons licence (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

cordia-subcordata-akk1

floral wreath, made of kou flowers

Photo: Dr. Angela K. Keppler; by courtesy of Dr. Angela K. Keppler

http://www.pbif.org

*********************

edited: 19.09.2016

Melicope spathulata A. Gray

Melicope spathulata

Distribution:

Hawai’ Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1]

*********************

edited: 12.12.2018

Doodia lyonii O. Deg.

Doodia lyonii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

*********************

edited: 03.02.2018

Clermontia parviflora Gaudich. ex A. Gray

Clermontia parviflora

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

*********************

clermontia-parviflora-j-game

Photo: John Game
https://www.flickr.com/photos/47945928@N02

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.0

Cyanea cylindrocalyx (Rock) Lammers

Cyanea cylindrocalyx

Distribution:

Hawai’i Island: Hawai’i

local names: –

~~~

This species is considered extinct.

Stenogyne microphylla Benth.

Stenogyne microphylla

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

~~~

This species is known to hybridize with Stenogyne rugosa Benth..

*********************

stenogyne-microphylla-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Sapindus saponaria L.

Sapindus saponaria

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Mangaia, Ma’uke
Fiji: Beqa, Gau, Moturiki, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Kamaka, Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Fatu Huku, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui (?)
Samoa: Apolima, Nu’utele, Savai’i, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: ‘Uvea

local names:

a’e – Hawai’i Islands
akeake – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
manele – Hawai’i Islands
ngatata hina – ‘Eua / Tonga

*********************

sapindus-saponaria-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017

Boerhavia herbstii Fosberg

Boerhavia herbstii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Lana’i, Lisianski, Maui, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes

local names: –

~~~

This species is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

boerhavia-herbstii-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Adenostemma viscosum J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Adenostemma viscosum

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu
Cook Islands: Palmerston, Rarotonga
Fiji: Gau, Koro, Moturiki, Taveuni, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mo’orea, Tahiti
Tokelau: Olohega
Tonga: Kao, Tofua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u

local names:

tahahavai – Marquesas
tatamako – Marquesas

~~~

This species was probably brought to many parts of Polynesia by the first Polynesian settlers, but is likely indigenous at least to the western part of Polynesia.

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

*********************

adenostemma-viscosum-si-mnmh

Photo: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Dichanthelium hillebrandianum (Hitchc.) C. A. Clark & Gould

Dichanthelium hillebrandianum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

Sophora chrysophylla (Salisb.) Seem.

Mamane (Sophora chrysophylla)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

mamane – Hawai’i Islands
mamani – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

sophora-chrysophylla-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Hymenophyllum recurvum Gaudich.

Hymenophyllum recurvum

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

hymenophyllum-recurvum-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited:

05.02.2017