Tag Archives: Hawai’i Islands

Asplenium trichomanes L.

Asplenium trichomanes

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui
New Zealand: North Island; South Island

local names: –

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Three subspecies are known to occur within the Polynesian region, of which only one is endemic.

The nominate race occurs in Australia and on New Zealand’s North- and South Islands, the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. densum (Brack.) W. H. Wagner is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, while the subspecies Asplenium trichomanes ssp. quadrivalens Meyer, which is native to Australia and Europe, is known from a few population on New Zealand’s North Island.

Hibiscus furcellatus Desr.

Clay’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus furcellatus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiahala – Hawai’i Islands
‘akiohala – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele wai – Hawai’i Islands

Hyposmocoma papaiili Schmitz & Rubinoff

Crab Shell Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma papaiili)

The Crab Shell Cosmet Moth was scientifically described in the year 2011.

It is a rather inconspicuous dark greyish brown colored species, which is restricted to the island of Maui.

the males have a wingspan of about 0,72 to 0,88 cm, the females of up to 1,26 cm.

The larvae were found on Eucalyptus trees (which are not native to the Hawaiian Islands), where they most probably feed on lichens.

The larval case in its shape resembles somewhat the carapace of a crab. It is about 1 cm long and has an entrance at each of the both, strangely serrated ends.

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

Thyrocopa minor Walsingham

Smaller Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa minor)

This species is endemic to the island of Moloka’i.

The moth has a wingspan of about 1,8 cm, the forewings are mottled light brown and brown, the hindwings are brown.

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References:
[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Chloridops kona Wilson

Kona Grosbeak (Chloridops kona)

The Kona Grosbeak was discovered at the end of the 19th century, at that time it was restricted to a tiny, only about 10 km² large area in the north of the Kona district on the island of Hawai’i.

This rather plump and inconspicuous looking bird fed almost exclusively on the dried seeds of the Naio tree (Myoporum sandwicense (A. Gray)), and could often be located by the cracking sound of its feeding.

R. C. L. Perkins was one of the few people, that saw the bird in life, he wrote about it in the year 1893.:

The Palila (Chloridops kona), though an interesting bird on account of its peculiar structure, is a singularly uninteresting one in its habits. It is a dull, sluggish, solitary bird, and very silent – its whole existence may be summed up in the words “to eat.” Its food consists of the seeds of the fruit of the aaka (bastard sandal-tree [Myoporum sandwicense (A. Gray)], and probably in other seasons of those of the sandal-wood tree), and as these are very minute, its whole time seems to be taken up in cracking the extremely hard shells of this fruit, for which its extraordinarily powerful beak and heavy head have been developed. I think there must have been hundreds of the small white kernels in those that I examined. The incessant cracking of the fruits when one of these birds is feeding, the noise of which can be heard for a considerable distance, renders the bird much easier to see than it otherwise would be. … I never heard it sing (once mistook the young Rhodacanthis’ song for that of Chloridops), but my boy informed me that he had heard it once, and its song was not like that of Rhodacanthis. Only once did I see it display any real activity, when a male and female were in active pursuit of one another amongst the sandal-trees. Its beak is nearly always very dirty, with a brown substance adherent to it, which must be derived from the sandal-tree.

Note, that the name Palila is actually the Hawaiian vernacular name for another drepanidine bird species – Loxioides bailleui (Oustalet).

The last living Kona Grosbeaks were seen in the year 1894.

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Notes on Collecting in Kona. The Ibis 6(5): 101-111. 1893
[2] D. Luther: Die ausgestorbenen Vögel der Welt. Westarp Wissenschaften 1986
[3] H. D. Pratt; P. L. Bruner; D. G. Berrett: A Field Guide to the Birds of Hawaii and the Tropical Pacific. Princeton University Press 1987
[4] E. Fuller: Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England) 1987
[5] H. D. Pratt: The Hawaiian Honeycreepers: Drepanidinae. Oxford Univ. Pr. 2005

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Depiction from: ‘W. Rothschild: The Avifauna of Laysan and the neighbouring islands with a complete history to date of the birds of the Hawaiian possession. 1893-1900’

by courtesy of Erin Clements Rushing

http://www.sil.si.edu

Haliophyle flavistigma (Warren)

Haliophyle flavistigma

This species appears to be restricted to the island of Maui, at least one other, closely related, but not yet described species occurs on the nearby island of Moloka’i. [2]

There is obviously still not much known about the biology of this species, a situation that is shared with so many other Polynesian insect species …. [1]

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References:

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958
[2] F. G. Howarth; W. P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons licence (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Pisonia umbellifera (J. R. & G. Forst.) Seem.

Pisonia umbellifera

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Aiwa, Koro, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yagasa
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua

local names:

daiga – Fiji
papala – Hawai’i Islands
papala kepau – Hawai’i Islands
para para – Cook Islands
raro – Vanua Levu / Fiji
roro – Vanua Levu / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Thyrocopa geminipuncta Walsingham

Twinspotted Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa geminipuncta)

The Twinspotted Thyrocopa Moth obviously occurs on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 2 to 2,2 cm.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Dryophthorus distinguendus Perkins

Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil (Dryophthorus distinguendus)

The Hawaiian Driftwood Weevil was described in the year 1900.

The species was found first on the island of Laysan, namely in wooden boxes that came from the main islands. It was subsequently found also on nearly all of the other Hawaiian Islands (Hawai’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, and O’ahu), but appears in lists of extinct species, which, in my opinion, is quite strange.

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References:

[1] R. C. L. Perkins: Coleoptera, Weevils. Bishop Museum Bulletin 31: 53-66. 1926

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Geranium hillebrandii Aedo & Muñoz Garm.

Geranium hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

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Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer, Plant Extinction Prevention Program
USFWS – Pacific Region

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0

Macrophthalmus convexus Stimpson

Convex Sentinel Crab (Macrophthalmus convexus)

The Convex Sentinel Crabs are very small crabs having an average carapace diameter of about 1 x 1,5 cm to 1,5 x 3 cm and exceedingly long eyestalks.

They live in the intertidal zone, where they can be found abundantly on muddy places near the outlets of small streams, and are therefore absent from islands without such freshwater streams, e.g. the Tuamotus. The crabs feed on smallest food particles, which they sift out from the sand.

These crabs dig their burrows in muddy sand, in which they flee at the slightest disturbance.

On Aitutaki the crabs are called papaka.

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Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decapoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

Hyposmocoma eliai Schmitz & Rubinoff

Elia’s Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma eliai)

This species was described in the year 2011, it is so far known only from the type locality near the Nawiliwili bay in the southeast of the island of Kaua’i.

It is one of the smallest species of its genus, males have a wingspan of only about 0,45 to 0,5 cm. The color of the forewings is blackish, except for three disconnected white stripes on each of the wings, and some dark grey scales, the hindwings are completely grey in color.

The larvae live on large barren volcanic rocks along the shoreline, which regularly getting sprayed with salty sea water. They build a bag-shaped, about 0,4 cm long larval case, made of fine sand interwoven with silk.

They obviously feed on algae. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

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edited: 01.03.2016

Hibiscus arnottianus A. Gray

Arnott’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus arnottianus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Moloka’i, O’ahu

local name:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
koki’o ke’oke’o – Hawai’i Islands
koki’o kea – Hawai’i Islands
pamakani – Hawai’i Islands

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three subspecies:

Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. arnottianus A. Gray – O’ahu
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus (M. J. Roe) D. M. Bates – Moloka’i
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. punaluuensis (Skottsb.) D. M. Bates – O’ahu

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia repens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes
Kiribati: Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden Island, Starbuck Island, Vostok Island
Marquesas: Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka
Niue (?)
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila

local names:

alena – Hawai’i Islands
anena – Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
te wao – Kiribati

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Sicyos maximowiczii Cogn.

Sicyos maximowiczii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kure, Lehua, Lisianski, Laysan, Ni’ihau, O’ahu (ex), Pearl and Hermes

local names: –

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Sicyos semitonsus (Sicyos maximowiczii x pachycarpus)

Ocypode pallidula Hombron & Jacquinot

Common Ghost-Crab (Ocypode pallidula)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rurutu
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Aitutaki, Ma’uke, Mangaia, Manuae, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Gambier Islands: Aukena, Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Laysan, Midway, O’ahu
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Tuamotu Archipelago: Manihiki, Marutea (Sud), Moruroa, Raraka
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi

local names:

‘atike – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
kalami – Pukapuka / Cook Islands
kohiti – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
kohitihiti – Tongareva / Cook Islands
ko’iti – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
tike – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
tiketike – ‘Atiu, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
titorotai – Mangaia / Cook Islands

***

The Common Ghost-Crab is indigenous in the Indo-Pacific region, where it can be found running about the beaches in search for food, and digging burrows in the sand.

It is a rather small species, reaching a carapace size of about 2,5 cm in diameter.

On the Cook Islands, where the species seems to be very common, it is known by several names, including ‘atike, kalami, kohiti, kohitihiti, ko’iti, tike, tiketike and titorotai.

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References:

[1] Katsushi Sakai; Michael Türkay: Revision of the genus Ocypode with the description of a new genus, Hoplocypode (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 56(2): 665-793. 2013

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Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decpoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

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edited: 17.12.2018

Hyposmocoma moopalikea Schmitz & Rubinoff

Palikea Water Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma moopalikea)

The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth was described in the year 2011.

The species is endemic to the island of Maui, it is so far known only from the vicinity of the Palikea stream in the Kipahulu valley.

The case-bearing caterpillars are aquatic, the larval cases are burrito-shaped and 0,5 to 0,7 cm in length.

The male moth reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm, the female is slightly larger. The forewings are mostly dark brown with some scattered off-white scales. [1]

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The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth appears to be very rare. [1]

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References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: The Hawaiian amphibious caterpillar guild: new species of Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) confirm distinct aquatic invasions and complex speciation patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 15–42. 2011

Thyrocopa apatela (Walsingham)

Flightless Haleakala Moth (Thyrocopa apatela)

The Haleakala Flightless Moth, also named as Grasshopper Moth, lives in the alpine zones of the Haleakala volcano.

Both sexes of this unconspicuous, about 1,5 cm long moth species have short wings and are flighless. They flutter in the wind, resembling dried leaves and are blown to appropriate deposits of organic debris, that have accumulated in rock crevices, where they mate and lay eggs.

The larvae can be found under large rocks, where the build web nests and where they feed on dried leaves and other organic debris.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Haliophyle connexa (Warren)

Haliophyle connexa

This species is endemic to the island of Hawai’i, where it is known from the area around Olaa at an elevation of about 610 m, nothing else is known about this species.

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References:

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, Koehler, Marquez, Waite & Williams

Kanohuanui Lobelia (Cyanea konahuanuiensis)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu

local names: –

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This species was just described in 2015.

The Kanohuanui Lobelia is known only from the Konahua-nui summit area in the Ko’olau Mountains of O’ahu, where it grows in wet forests at elevations of about 880 to 930 m. [1]

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References:

[1] Margaret Sporck-Koehler, Tobias Koehler, Sebastian Marquez, Mashuri Waite, Adam Williams: A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys 46: 45-60. 2015

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Photo from: ‘Margaret Sporck-Koehler, Tobias Koehler, Sebastian Marquez, Mashuri Waite, Adam Williams: A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys 46: 45-60. 2015’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Pritchardia remota Becc.

Pritchardia remota

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Nihoa

local names: –

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cyrtandra lysiocepala (A. Gray) C. B. Clarke

Cyrtandra lysiocepala

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.

Metrosideros polymorpha

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘ahihi ku ma kua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ahihi lehua – Hawai’i Islands
kumakua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
lehua papa – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands

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The ‘ohi’a lehua is by far the most common of the endemic tree species on the Hawaiian Islands and inhabits many areas on all of the main islands.

The species is highly variable, being usually a tall tree, but sometimes a small cushion-like shrub, and is thus split into eight varieties, these include:

Metrosideros polymorpha var. dieteri J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to Kaua’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. macrophylla (Rock) H. St. John only on Hawai’i and Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. newellii (Rock) H. St. John endemic to Hawai’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. polymorpha Gaudich. found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pseudorugosa (Skottsb.) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to western Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pumila (A. Heller) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. found on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

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The flowers of the ‘ohi’a lehua are usually red in color, but there are also orange- and yellow-flowering individuals. The nectar-rich flowers are one of the most important food resources, not only for various endemic and native insect species, but also for the few remaining endemic honeycreepers.

The ‘ohi’a lehua is a pioneer species on solidified lava, its dead leaves build the first fertile soil and therewith the basic conditions for further plant life. The tree is furthermore a very important basic component of another habitat, which, in such a way, is found only on the Hawaiian Islands – lava tubes. The roots of the trees, growing above such a lava tube, dangle from the ceiling of the tube, allowing rainwater to drip in, and furthermore build the basis of a food chain for an enormous number of specialized, cavernicolous arthropod species.

The wood is very hard and was in former times used for the construction of houses and temples (heiau), and of course for many other purposes, the bright red flowers (lehua), as well as the reddish colored new leaf shoots (liko) were/are used to make lei.

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References:

[1] N. DeBoer; E. A. Stacy: Divergence within and among 3 varieties of the endemic tree, ‘Ohi’a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the eastern slope of Hawai’i Island. Journal of Herdity 104(4): 1-10. 2013
[2] E. A. Stacy; J. B. Johansen; T. Sakishima; D. K. Price; Y. Pillon: Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha. Heredity (Edinb) 113(4): 334-342. 2014

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Endodonta apiculata Ancey

Pointed Disc Snail (Endodonta apiculata)

The Pointed Disc Snail, which was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, was described in the year 1889.

The shells of this species reached an average size of 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

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The genus Endodonta contains a little more than 10 species, all, except probably for one, are now obviously extinct.

The destruction of large areas of the native lowland habitats led to their extinction, and introduced invasive species, especially several aggressive ant species (for example the Red Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) or the Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger))) are a very serious threat to the last remaining endemic snail species, and are blamed for the extinction of many island endemic species. [2]

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References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Update on the status of the remaining Hawaiian land snail species Part 4: Punctidae and Endodontidae. 2016

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edited: 23.03.2017

Thyrocopa kanaloa Medeiros

Kanaloa Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa kanaloa)

The Kanaloa Thyrocopa Moth, which was described in the year 2009, is endemic to the highly devastated and desertificated small island of Kaho’olawe.

The species reaches a wingspan of only 1,4 to 1,6 cm, the forewings are mottled very light brown to black, sometimes they show one or more very small, faint black spots, the hindwings are very light brown.

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References:

[1] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Asteia montgomeryi Hardy

Montgomery’s Asteiid Fly (Asteia montgomeryi)

This species was described in the year 1980, this is one of the few species within this genus, that seems to be endemic to a single island within the Hawaiian chain.

The larvae are known to develop inside the rotting stems of dead Wiliwili trees (Erythrina sandwichensis O. Deg.).

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References:

[1] Patrick M. O´Grady; Karl Nicholas Magnacca: Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New distributional records for endemic Asteia (Asteiidae). Biodiversity Data Journal 2: e1010. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.2.e1010

Microlepia strigosa (Thunb.) C. Presl

Lace Fern (Microlepia strigosa)

Distribution:

Fiji
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names:

nehe nehe – Rapa Nui
palai – Hawai’i Islands
palapalai – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The Lace Fern is distributed in many parts of Asia, within the Polynesian region it occurs on Tahiti, Society Islands as well as on Rapa Nui. The species can also be found on the Hawaiian main islands, where on the island of Maui, an endemic variety, Microlepia strigosa var. mauiensis (W. H. Wagner) D. D. Palmer, is known to exist, which was formerly thought to be a distinct species, and which can be distinguished from the typical variety by its hairy fronds.

The Hawaiian name for this species is palai resp. palapalai, its fronds were used in ancient times to decorate the altars of laka, the hula goddess, as well as for making lei.

In Rapa Nui the species is named nehe nehe, a term that is used for almost all fern species.

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium (Gaudich.) Anderb.

Pseudognaphalium sandwicensium

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

var. hawaiiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. kilaueanum (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner
var. molokaiense (O. Deg. & Sherff) W. L. Wagner

Melicope pseudoanisata (Rock) T. G. Hartley & B. C. Stone

Melicope pseudoanisata

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui

local names: –

Hyposmocoma domicolens (Butler)

House-dwelling Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma domicolens)

This species was described already in 1881, the type specimen was collected in a house – thus its species epithet.

The adult reaches a wingspan of about 1,3 cm.

The species is so far known only from the Makawao Forest Reserve, a habitat that is now rapidly declining due to damage from invasive ungulates. [1][2]

~~~

There are several specimens from other islands (Hawai’i, Lana’i, and Moloka’i), that were erroneously assigned to this species. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera. Part II. Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Akito Y. Kawahara; Daniel Rubinoff: Three new species of fancy case caterpillars from threatened forests of Hawaii (Lepidoptera, Cosmopterigidae, Hyposmocoma). ZooKeys 170: 1-20. 2012

Cyanea humboldtiana (Gaudich.) Lammers, Givnish & Sytsma

Cyanea humboldtiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu

local names: –

Phyllostegia mollis Benth.

Phyllostegia mollis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu

local names: –

*********************

Photo: David Eickhoff

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0

Metrarga elinguis Ashlock

Mute Seed Bug (Metrarga elinguis)

The genus Metrarga currently consists of only five species, all of which are endemic to the Hawaiian archipelago.

~~~

This species was described in the year 1966.

The males are about 0,6 to 0,7 cm long, the females are slightly larger.

The Mute Seed Bug occurs exclusively on the island of Hawai’i, where it can be found on ‘ie’ie (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.) and probably also on other native Hawaiian plant species.

Cyanea macrostegia Hillebr.

Cyanea macrostegia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

Iolania koolauensis Giffard

Koolau Iolania Planthopper (Iolania koolauensis)

The Koolau Iolania Planthopper lives on the island of O’ahu, where it can be found in the northern Ko’olau Mountains at an elevation of 600 to 830 m. The habits of this species are nearly unknown.

The male reaches a length of 0,5 to 0,6 cm, the female is up to 0,7 cm long.

The genus Iolania is endemic to the main islands of the Hawaiian chain, and contains six (currently known) species.

*********************

References:

[1] Hannelore Hoch: Systematics and evolution of Iolania (Hemiptera: Fulguromorpha: Cixiidae) from Hawaii. Systematic Entomology 31: 302-320. 2006

Nesotocus giffardi Perkins

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil (Nesotocus giffardi)

Giffard’s Nesotocus Weevil is found on the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu.

~~~

The genus Nesotocus, which contains four species, is now placed within the subfamily Molytinae, with the most closely related species living in Australia and New Zealand.

The males of all species can easily be distinguished from the females by their longer legs, and especially by the position of their antennae, these are placed in the anterior third of the rostrum, while in the females the antennae are placed further towards the posterior third.

The larvae of all species bore in the wood of dead olapa trees (Cheirodendron trigynum (Gaudich.) Heller) on which they feed upon, the pupation takes place inside a chamber (pupal cell), which can be detected by a distinct hole on the outside of the wood.

*********************

References:

[1] John Colburn Bridwell: Notes on Nesotocus Giffardi Perkins (Coleoptera). Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 4(1): 250-256. 1918
[2] Sadie A. Solomon: Systematics of the Hawaiian endemic weevil genus Nesotocus Perkins 1900 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Student Competition Display Presentations, Section A. Systematics, Morphology, and Evolution 2003

*********************

Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

Thyrocopa subahenea Walsingham

Thyrocopa subahenea

This species inhabits the islands of Maui and Moloka’i.

The moth reaches a wingspan of about 1,6 to 2,4 cm, the forewings are mostly brown, but are quite variable in pattern, the hindwings are brown or light brown.

********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Astelia menziesiana Sm.

Astelia menziesiana

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kaluaha – Hawai’i Islands
pa’iniu – Hawai’i Islands
pua akuhinia – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 18.09.2017

Megalagrion blackburni McLachlan

Blackburn’s Hawaiian Damselfly (Megalagrion blackburni)

This species reaches a body length of slightly more than 6 cm and is thus the largest member of its family on the Hawaiian Islands.

The larvae of this species develop, like most other dragonfly species, in freshwater, the larvae of other members of this genus, which contains at least 30 species, however, sometimes live terrestrial (on ground) or arboreal (in trees). [1]

~~~

The adults of several species in this genus show the quite unusual behavior of feigning death when caught (see photograph). [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 2; Apterygota to Thysanoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1948
[2] Francis G. Howarth; William P. Mull: Hawaiian Insects and Their Kin. University of Hawaii Press 1992

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cyanea elliptica (Rock) Lammers

Cyanea elliptica

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Lana’i, Maui

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pellaea ternifolia (Cav.) Link

Pellaea ternifolia

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

kalamoho – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cenchrus agrimonioides Trin.

Cenchrus agrimonioides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kure (ex), Lana’i, Laysan (ex), Maui, Moloka’i, Midway (ex), O’ahu

local names: –

kamanomano – Hawai’i Islands
kumanomano – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The extinct populations that formerly occurred on some of the northwestern islands (Kure, Laysan, Midway) are sometimes regarded to as a distinct variety, Cenchrus agrimonioides var. laysanensis F. Br..

*********************

edited: 23.06.2017

Trupanea bidensicola Hardy & Delfinado

Beggarticks Fruit Fly (Trupanea bidensicola)

The Beggarticks Fruit Fly comes from the island of Kaua’i and was described in the year 1980.

It closely resembles the Thick-legged Fruit Fly (Trupanea crassipes (Thomson)) and was considered identical with it for some time.

The larvae of this species feed on the developing seeds of the Cosmosflower Beggarticks (Bidens cosmoides (A. Gray) Sherff), and probably also on other species from that genus.

*********************

edited: 23.06.2017

Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trevis.

Huperzia serrata

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, O’ahu, Moloka’i
Samoa: Savai’i
Society Islands: Tahiti

local names: –

Zizina otis ssp. labradus (Godart)

Lesser Grass Blue (Zizina otis ssp. labradus)

The Lesser Grass Blue, a very small, blue butterfly with a wingspan of only about 1,5 cm, is a widely distributed species, that is still expanding its range, so for example the species has reached the Hawaiian Islands by 2008.

The formerly recognized subspecies ssp. cheesmanae (Poulton & Riley), ssp. mangoensis (Butler) are now obviously included in the ssp. labradus (Godart), which occurs in the Polynesian region and beyond, however, the taxonomical position of this species and its subspecies varies from author to author.

The caterpillars feed on a wide variety of legume species.

~~~

In Niue the species is called pepe lanu moana mama.

*********************

References:

[1] John Adam Comstock: Lepidoptera of American Samoa with particular reference to biology and ecology. Pacific Insects Monographs 11: 1-74. 1966
[2] Jaqueline Y. Miller; Lee D. Miller: The Butterflies of the Tonga Islands and Niue, Cook Islands, with the Descriptions of two new subspecies. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 34: 1-24. 1993
[3] Karin S. Kami; Scott E. Miller: Samoan Insects and related Arthropods: Checklist and Bibliography. Bishop Museum Technical Report 13. 1998
[4] Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: Butterflies of Fiji. The Weta 24(1): 5-12. 2002
[5] Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: Butterflies of the South Pacific. Otago University Press 2012

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 18.01.14

Cyperus hillebrandii Boeck.

Cyperus hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

two varieties:

Cyperus hillebrandii var. decipiens (Hillebr.) Kük.
Cyperus hillebrandii var. hillebrandii Boeck.

Thyrocopa megas Walsingham

Large Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa megas)

The Large Thyrocopa Moth is endemic to the island of Maui, where it is known to inhabit the Haleakala volcano area.

The species reaches a wingspan of about 2,6 to 3,6 cm, the forewings are very light whitish brown with some brown scales, the hindwings are very light whitish brown with an almost white fringe.

********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Campsicnemus prestoni Evenhuis

Preston’s Long-legged Fly (Campsicnemus prestoni)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

***

Preston’s Long-legged Fly was described in 2007, it is endemic to Hawai’i, where it apparently inhabits several kipuka near the saddle Road on the slopes of Mauna Loa.

The species reaches a length of up to 0,2 cm, its head is shining dark brown, the clypeus and face are brown, the thorax is brown throughout, the abdomen is brown as well and beras short hairs dorsally on each tergite, the legs are yellowish brown. The wings are up to o, 23 cm long and subhyaline. Males and females are similar. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Neal L. Evenhuis: New Hawaiian Campsicnemus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae). Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2006. Edited by Neal L. Evenhuis & Lucius G. Eldredge. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 95: 9-16. 2007

*********************

edited: 24.12.2018

Clermontia waimeae Rock

Clermontia waimeae

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

Nabis gagneorum Polhemus

Gagné’s Damsel Bug (Nabis gagneorum)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

***

This species was described in 1999, it is known to occur on the islands of Maui and Moloka’i, Hawaiian Islands.

The males are 0,78 cm long, the females are slightly larger, both sexes are dark brown colored.

Gagné’s Damsel Bug has brachypetrous wings and is flightless, it is semiaquatic and strictly confined to riparian habitats, it inhabits wet surfaces of rocks along streams but also midstream rocks, where it apparently also breeds. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Dan A. Polhemus: A new species of riparian Nabidae (Heteroptera) from the Hawaiian Islands. Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 101: 868-874. 1999

*********************

Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer
http://hear.smugmug.com 

(under creative commons license (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0

*********************

edited: 15.12.2018

Leptogryllus deceptor Perkins

Oahu Deceptor Bush Cricket (Leptogryllus deceptor)

This rather enigmatic species was described in the year 1910 from the island of O’ahu, Hawaiian Islands.

The whole genus seems to be only barely known and little investigated. But it is known, that related species (Leptogryllus fusconotatus Perkins from O’ahu, Leptogryllus nigrolineatus (Perkins) from Maui) live at the leaf bases of leaves of the ‘ie ‘ie liana (Freycinetia arborea Gaudich.). Several other species then again seem to be inhabitants of the leaf litter of the forest floor.

~~~

In the official international Red List the species is considered extinct in the wild. Its name can be found furthermore in the Internet in several lists, which deal with animals that are extinct in the wild, but are kept in zoos for species conservation. Most often these lists are copies of copies of copies of ….

However at least in the case of the Oahu Deceptor Bush Cricket this seems to be an error. This species is obviously not kept in any zoo and therefore must indeed be regarded as truly extinct. (pers. comm. P. Maas & Ph. D. K. C. Zippel (Amphibian Program Officer of the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group (CBSG)))

Hyposmocoma eepawai Schmitz & Rubinoff

Eepa’s Water Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma eepawai)

This species was described in the year 2011.

The species is endemic to the island of Kaua’i, where it is known only from the drainage of the Kawaikoi stream on the north-western plateau of the Alaka’i swamp.

The amphibious caterpillars build bugle-shaped larval cases.

The moth reaches a wingspan of up to 1,6 cm, the forewings are mostly greyish-blue with pale tipped scales, with very few scattered rusty scales. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: The Hawaiian amphibious caterpillar guild: new species of Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) confirm distinct aquatic invasions and complex speciation patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 15–42. 2011

*********************

edited: 29.01.2017

Pisonia grandis R. Br.

Pisonia grandis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Kadavu, Mabualau, Nayabo, Rotuma, Vanua Levu
Hawai’i Islands: Lisianski, Maui
Kiribati: Abariringa, Enderbury, Flint, Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden, Manra, McKean, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra, Starbuck, Tabuaeran, Teraina, Vostok
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Fatu Huku, Hatu Iti, Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Rose-Atoll, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu One, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fukave, Lifuka, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Maninita, Mokotu’u, Motutapu, Nomuka, Onevai, Onevao, Tau, Toketoke, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Fangatau, Kaukura, Makatea, Mataiva, Napuka, Niau, Nukutipipi, Pukapuka, Rangiroa, Raroia, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tenararo, Tepoto Nord, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vanavana
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Nui, Niulakita, Niutao, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Motu Faioa, ‘Uvea

local names:

buka – Fiji
puka – Cook Islands
puka avarua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
pukatea – Cook Islands
pu’avai – Samoa
talatalabia – Fiji

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Ocypode ceratophthalma (Pallas)

Horn-eyed Ghost-Crab (Ocypode ceratophthalma)

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga
Fiji: Kadavu, Makaluva, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Kiritimati, Palmyra, Tabuaeran
Marquesas: Eiao, Nuku Hiva
Norfolk Islands
Samoa: Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Manuae, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, ‘Uvea
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fakarava, Makatea, Makemo, Marutea (Sud), Mataiva, Rangiroa, Raraka, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau

local names:

avi’ivi’i – Samoa
kalami wolomatua – Pukapuka / Cook Islands
kohite – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
pa’a – Samoa

***

The Horn-eyed Ghost-Crab is indigenous to the Indo-Pacific, where it occurs from the coasts of East Africa far into Polynesia, where the animals run about the beaches in search for edible things, including washed up dead fish, or dead sea birds, but also newly hatched sea turtles.

It is a quite large species with a carapace size of up to 8 cm in diameter. It can be distinguished from other related crabs by the eyestalks extending beyond the eyes into long points, those stalks are longer in males, and shorter or almost absent in females.

In Samoa, the species is called avi’ivi’i resp. pa’a.

**********************

References:

[1] Katsushi Sakai; Michael Türkay: Revision of the genus Ocypode with the description of a new genus, Hoplocypode (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 56(2): 665-793. 2013

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Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decpoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

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edited: 19.12.2018

Hyposmocoma tetraonella (Walsingham)

Tetraonella Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma tetraonella)

This species, which has been scientifically described in the year 1907, was found in the Kona region on the island of Hawai’i at an elevation of about 1200 m.

The biology of this species is completely unknown so far.

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978

*********************

hyposmocoma-tetraonella-fh

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Clermontia clermontioides (Gaudich.) A. Heller

Clermontia clermontioides

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

~~~

two subspecies, (nominate and Clermontia clermontioides ssp. rockiana (E. Wimm.) Lammers), both endemic to Hawai’i

Thyrocopa apikia Medeiros

Deceptive Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa apikia)

The Deceptive Thyrocopa Moth, described in the year 2009, is endemic to the island of Moloka’i.

The moth has a wingspan of about 2,8 to 3,2 cm, the forewings are brown to dark brown to rich purplish brown, the hindwings are of a lighter brown.

The species is superficially similar to Thyrocopa subahenea Walsingham, with which it shares its habitat, both species can be separated by their genitalia.

********************

References:

[1] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Alucita objurgatella (Walsingham)

Alahee Many-plumed Moth (Alucita objurgatella)

This species was described in the year 1907, it reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm.

The Alahee Many-plumed Moth is thus far known only from the Hawaiian Islands, more precisely from the islands of Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, and O’ahu – however, Elwood C. Zimmerman writes in 1958 in ‘Insects of Hawaii’: “I believe that this species is not a member of the native fauna and that it will some day be reported from its true home outside of Hawaii.”.

The larvae feed on the flower buds, fruits, and seeds of the native Alahe’e shrub (Psydrax odorata (G. Forst.) A. C. Sm. & S. P. Darwin), and are parasitized by various native parasitic wasp species, including the Metallic Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)) and the Hawaiian Ichneumon Wasp (Pristomerus hawaiiensis Perkins).

*********************

References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii; A Manual of the Insects of the Hawaiian Islands, including an Enumeration of the Species and Notes on their Origins, Distribution, Hosts, Parasites, etc.. Vol. 8, Lepidoptera: Pyralidae. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

*********************

alucita-objurgatella-fhaw

Depiction from: ‘Fauna Hawaiiensis; being the land-fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. by various authors, 1899-1913. Cambridge [Eng.]: The University Press 1913′

Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb.

Caesalpinia bonduc

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa
Fiji: Leleuvia, Makaluva, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukuci, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Rotuma, Sawa-i-lau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yasawa
Gambier Islands: Kamaka
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Laysan, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Marquesas: Hatuta’a, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Ata, Fafa, Foa, Niuatoputapu, Oneata, Onevai, Pangaimotu, Tongatapu

local names:

anaoso – Samoa
hihikolo – Hawai’i Islands
kakalaioa – Hawai’i Islands
soni – Vanua Levu / Fiji
tartar mann – Rotuma / Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Lakeba, Nayau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: North Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

asaua – Samoa
tuanu’e – Mangaia, Ma’uke, Raraka / Cook Islands
tuenu’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
uluhe – Hawai’i Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Psychotria hawaiiensis (A. Gray) Fosb.

Psychotria hawaiiensis

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Maui, Moloka’i

local names: –

~~~

three varieties, nominate, Psychotria hawaiiensis var. hillebrandii (Rock) Fosb. and Psychotria hawaiiensis var. scoriacea (Rock) Fosb.

Callistopteris baldwinii (D. C. Eaton) Copel.

Callistopteris baldwinii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

This species appears to be endemic to the Hawaiian Islands.

*********************

References:

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Jean-Yves Dubuisson; Kunio Iwatsuki; Sabine Hennequin; Motomi Ito: A taxonomic revision of Hymenophyllaceae. Blumea 52(2): 1-60. 2006

Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi

Screw Pine (Pandanus tectorius)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Dravuni, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Laucala, Mabualau, Makaluva, Matamanoa, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Nagigia, Namenalala, Namuka, Nananu, Nasoata, Naviti, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Qamea, Rotuma, Solkope, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatoa, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wayasewa, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Makapu, Makaroa, Mangareva, Manui, Mekiro, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Flint Island, Karoraina, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu Nono, Motu Puuru, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Kao, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Motutapu, Mounu, Niuatoputapu, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tafahi, Tau, Tofua, Toketoke, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uiha, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Akiaki, Anaa, Aratika, Hao, Katiu, Makatea, Makemo, Manihi, Mataiva, Morane, Mururoa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutepipi, Rangiroa, Raroia, Tahanea, Taiaro, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tatakoto, Temoe, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahitahi
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Niulakita, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Faioa, Fenua Fo’ou, Futuna, Nukuatea, Nukuloa, Nukutapu, ‘Uvea

local names:

‘ara – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
‘ara pepe – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke / Cook Islands
‘ara-ta’atai – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
‘ara-tai – ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
balawa – Fiji
draudreka – Fiji
fa – Niue; Tonga
fa’a mei – Marquesas
fa feutu – Niue
fa fi – Niue
fa ivi – Niue
fala – Samoa
falavao – Olohega / Tokelau
fala vao – Tokelau
fara – Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga / Cook Islands; Tupai / Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
fara moa – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara moua – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara uteute – Tahiti / Society Islands
fasa – Samoa
hala – Hawai’i Islands
hala kilipaki – Hawai’i Islands (spineless clone)
hara – Tongareva / Cook Islands
hat – Rotuma / Fiji
hata – Rotuma / Fiji
hosoa – Rotuma / Fiji
kiakia – Rotuma / Fiji
kie – Tonga (spineless clone)
lau fala – Samoa (spineless clone)
pandana – Palmerston / Cook Islands
pu hala – Hawai’I Islands
sa’aga – Rotuma / Fiji
te kaina – Kiribati
teou – Nui / Tuvalu
teto – Nui / Tuvalu
tima – Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
uea – Tupai / Society Islands
vadra – Fiji
varawa – Fiji
voivoi – Fiji
wala – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The Screw Pine is a geographically widespread and exceptionally morphologically variable species (or maybe a species complex). In the Polynesian region this plant is found almost everywhere, except for climatically inappropriate areas like New Zealand or Rapa Nui.

The Screw Pine was once one of the most important plants for the Polynesians, and Screw Pine saplings, together with saplings of Breadfruit Trees, Coconut Palms, Taro and several others, were transported by the Polynesian settlers on their boats during inter-island migration – to be planted out at their new island homes.

The Polynesians, over time, reared numerous cultivars, among them such whose leaves are lacking spines on their margins, and which therefore are very well-suited for weaving.

The exceptional variability of the wild and cultivated forms lead to the description of countless species, subspecies and varieties. So, Harold St. John alone described in his “Revision of the Genus Pandanus” various female plants as distinct species – in many cases from geographically very localized populations. In a biological sense, all of these ‘species’ are part of the same population, and furthermore, it is impossible to designate male plants to such ‘species’.

Some of the morphologically distinct forms that are seemingly restricted to the higher elevations of larger islands, like Pandanus papenooensis H. St. John on Tahiti or Pandanus temehaniensis J. W. Moore on Ra’iatea, are often still referred to as distinct species.

(I personally, however, see all of these forms as Pandanus tectorius.)

Nevertheless, the genus is in urgent need of a proper revision!

~~~

As already mentioned, in virtually all parts of Polynesia the leaves were and are used for weaving, among other things, for elaborate mats, especially in Tonga, or boat sails (in former times on the Hawai’i Islands), right up to roofs and walls of houses (!). The stilt roots were used, for example, on the Cook Islands, for house building (as abutment walls) too.

The fruits are fruit heads comprising an aggregate of many tightly bunched phalanges or drupes that are edible. In some cultivars, these drupes reach the size of an apple. They are eaten especially in parts of Kiribati, Tokelau, and in Tuvalu.

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References:

[1] Sven Buerki; Martin W. Callmander; Dion S. Devey; Lauren Chappell; Timothy Gallaher; Jérôme Munzinger; Thomas Haevermans Félix Forest: Straightening out the screw-pines: A first step in understanding phylogenetic relationships within Pandanaceae. Taxon 61(5): 1010-1020. 2012
[2] Timothy Gallaher; Martin W. Gallmander; Sven Buerki; Sterling C. Keeley: A long distance dispersal hypothesis for the Pandanaceae and the origins of the Pandanus tectorius complex. Molecular Phylogenetis and Evolution 83: 20-32.2015

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pandanus-tectorius-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 13.02.2017

Trupanea celaenoptera Hardy

Brown-winged Fruit Fly (Trupanea celaenoptera Hardy)

The Brown-winged Fruit Fly from the island of Hawai’i is related to the Black-winged Fruit Fly (Trupanea nigripennis Hardy).

The species reaches a length of about 0,42 cm and has about 0,44 cm long, almost completely brown colored wings.

The larvae of this species feed on the plant tissue of several (?) Dubautia spp., whereby they cause galls on the stems of the plants they afflict.

~~~

The larvae themselves again, are obviously parasitized by the native Metallic Glossy Eulophid Wasp (Euderus metallicus (Ashmead)).

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edited: 14.02.2017

Thyrocopa alterna Walsingham

Unarmed Thyrocopa Moth (Thyrocopa alterna)

This species is known to occur on the islands of Hawai’i and Maui.

The species reaches wingspans from 1,6 to 3 cm, with the individuals from Hawai’i generally being larger than those from Maui.

~~~

Following a revision of the genus in 2009 two forms formerly treated as distinct species are now included within this species, Thyrocopa adumbrata Walsingham and Thyrocopa inermis Walsingham.

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References:

[1] Elwood C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 9; Microlepidoptera Part 2; Gelechioidea. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1978
[2] Matthew J. Medeiros: A revision of the endemic Hawaiian genus Thyrocopa (Lepidoptera: Xyloryctidae: Xyloryctinae). Zootaxa 2202: 1-47. 2009

Cyclosorus pendens (D. D. Palmer) N. Snow

Cyclosorus pendens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names: –

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References:

[1] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012