Tag Archives: Futuna

Acacia simplex (Sparrman) Pedley

Acacia simplex

Distribution:

Fiji: Beqa, Fulaga, Katafaga, Komo, Lakeba, Leleuvia, Makaluva, Matuku, Moturiki, Naigani, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Rabi, Taveuni, Totoya, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Yacata, Yanucalailai
Samoa: Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Motutapu, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Tau, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uiha, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

tatagia – Fiji
tataqia – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

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Peperomia pallida (G. Forst.) A. Dietr.

Peperomia pallida

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Samoa: Savai’i, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga: Niuatoputapu, Tafahi, ‘Uta Vava’u
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Niau
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names: –

~~~

There are some forms of hybrid origin, Peperomia x abscondita and Peperomia pallida x societatis J. W. Moore.

Cyrtandra futunae Kraenzl.

Cyrtandra futunae

Distribution:

Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local name:

suka – Futuna / Wallis & Futuna

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References:

[1] Harold St. John; Albert C. Smith: The Vascular Plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands. Pacific Science 25(3): 313-348. 1971

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Pteropus tonganus Quoy & Gaimard

Tongan Fruit-Bat (Pteropus tonganus)

The Tongan Fruit-Bat occurs with several subspecies in an area that stretches from New Guinea to the Cook Islands in Central Polynesia, whereby the form, that can be found in Polynesia, represents the nominate race.

These animals reach a wing span of more than one metre and spend the day more or less sleeping in roosting trees, where they sometimes form giant colonies.

In most parts of its geographic range the species is an important source of protein and is therefore heavily hunted, but also because the Fruit-Bats, being frugivores, can cause enormous damages in fruiting trees. Hence the species has become rare in some parts of its geographic range, in others it has even disappeared completely.

In the Kingdom of Tonga in contrast Tongan Fruit-Bats are considered as property of the royal family and therefore are protected from hunting – a very effective protection.

On the Cook Islands, the eastern most edge of its distribution area, the Tongan Fruit-Bat is called moa kirikiri, which means ‘leather chicken’. On the Fijian Islands it is called beka, bekua (in the west part of Viti Levu), beka dina or doli (on Kadavu).

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References:

[1] Jorge M. Palmeirim; Alan Champion; Alivereti Naikatini, Jone Niukula; Marika Tuiwawa; Martin Fisher; Mere Yabaki-Gounder; Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir; Stanley Qalovaki; Thomas Dunn: Distribution, Status, and Conservation of Bats in the Fiji Islands. Oryx 41(4): 509-519. 2006

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Photo: Dr. Paddy Ryan; by courtesy of Dr. Paddy Ryan

http://www.ryanphotographic.com

Ophiorrhiza rupestris Hemsl.

Ophiorrhiza rupestris

Distribution:

Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names: –

~~~

Within the Polynesian region this species appears to be restricted to Alofi and Futuna, Wallis & Futuna, but it is otherwise known to be quite widespread on the Solomon Islands.

Since the plant is obviously restricted to beach habitats, it may be an arboriginal introduction. [1]

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References:

[1] Steven P. Darwin: The Pacific species of Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae). Lyonia 1(2): 47-102. 1976

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edited: 11.08.2017

Coenobita perlatus H. Milne Edwards

Strawberry Hermit Land Crab (Coenobita perlatus)

This species is distributed throughout the whole tropical Indopacific region, from the coasts of Africa up to East Polynesia, where it can be found in large numbers especially on the atolls of the Tuamotu Archipelago.

The animals mostly stay close to the beaches, where they feed on all applicable things they can get, including seeds washed up to the beach or fallen coconuts, but also washed up fish and dead seabirds.

Strawberry Hermit Land Crabs prefer the shells of sea snails of the genus Turbo.

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References:

[1] Alden D. Hinckley: Ecology of Terrestrial Arthropods on the Tokelau Atolls. Atoll Research Bulletin 124: 1-18. 1969
[2] J. C. Yaldwyn; Kasimierz Wodzicki: Systematics and ecology of the land crabs (Decapoda: Coenobitidae, Grapsidae and Gecarcinidae) of the Tokelau Islands, Central Pacific. Atoll Research Bulletin 235: 1-59. 1979
[3] S. A. Hathaway; K. McEachern; R. N. Fisher: Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1007, 78 p. 2011

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Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decapoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

Ocypode ceratophthalma (Pallas)

Horn-eyed Ghost-Crab (Ocypode ceratophthalma)

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Aitutaki, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga
Fiji: Kadavu, Makaluva, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Kiritimati, Palmyra, Tabuaeran
Marquesas: Eiao, Nuku Hiva
Norfolk Islands
Samoa: Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Manuae, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, ‘Uvea
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fakarava, Makatea, Makemo, Marutea (Sud), Mataiva, Rangiroa, Raraka, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau

local names:

avi’ivi’i – Samoa
kalami wolomatua – Pukapuka / Cook Islands
kohite – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
pa’a – Samoa

***

The Horn-eyed Ghost-Crab is indigenous to the Indo-Pacific, where it occurs from the coasts of East Africa far into Polynesia, where the animals run about the beaches in search for edible things, including washed up dead fish, or dead sea birds, but also newly hatched sea turtles.

It is a quite large species with a carapace size of up to 8 cm in diameter. It can be distinguished from other related crabs by the eyestalks extending beyond the eyes into long points, those stalks are longer in males, and shorter or almost absent in females.

In Samoa, the species is called avi’ivi’i resp. pa’a.

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References:

[1] Katsushi Sakai; Michael Türkay: Revision of the genus Ocypode with the description of a new genus, Hoplocypode (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 56(2): 665-793. 2013

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Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decpoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

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edited: 19.12.2018

Aidia racemosa (Cav.) Tirveng.

Aidia racemosa

Distribution:

Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name: –

Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.

Dicranopteris linearis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Lakeba, Nayau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: North Island
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Maupiti, Moorea, Raiatea, Tahaa, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

asaua – Samoa
tuanu’e – Mangaia, Ma’uke, Raraka / Cook Islands
tuenu’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
uluhe – Hawai’i Islands

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Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 10.04.2019

Geniostoma rupestre J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.

Geniostoma rupestre

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rapa, Rurutu (?)
Fiji: Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Nasoata, Nayau, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; North Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Rangitoto Island; South Island; Manawa Tawhi Island, South West Island (Three Kings Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mo’orea, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Ha’apai, Kao, Motutapu, Onevai, Tafahi, Tofua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

age – Rurutu / Austral Islands
ange – Rapa / Austral Islands
faipuu – Society Islands
hangehange – New Zealand
taipoipoi – Samoa

~~~

The species is split into several varieties, of which at least four occur within the Polynesian region, Geniostoma rupestre var. crassum (Cheeseman) Conn (endemic to New Zealand), Geniostoma rupestre var. glaberrimum (Benth.) Conn (most parts of Polynesia, especially French Polynesia), the nominate Geniostoma rupestre var. rupestre (western Polynesia), and Geniostoma rupestre var. tongense (A. C. Sm. & Stone) Conn (Fiji, Niue and Tonga).

Many of these varieties include synonyms that formerly were treated as distinct species. [1]

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References:

[1] Barry J. Conn: A taxonomic revision of Geniostoma Subg. Geniostoma (Loganiaceae). Blumea 26: 245-364. 1980

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geniostoma-r-v-rupestre-tt

nominate variety

Photo: Tavita Togia
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/tavita_togia2016

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Phlegmariurus phlegmaria (L.) Holub.

Phlegmariurus phlegmaria

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Rarotonga
Fiji: Rotuma, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Ua Pou
Niue
Samoa: Namu’a, Nu’utele, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

mohemohe – Niue

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References:

[1] F. Badré; M. Hoff: Les Ptéridophytes des Iles Wallis et Futuna (Pacifique Sud): écologie et répartition. Feddes Repertorium 106(3-4): 271-290. 1995
[2] Ashley R. Field; Peter D. Bostock: New and existing combinations in Palaeotropical Phlegmariurus (Lycopodiaceae) and lectotypification of the type species Phlegmariurus phlegmaria (L.) T. Sen & U. Sen. PhytoKeys 20: 33–51. 2013

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edited: 18.02.2017

Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi

Screw Pine (Pandanus tectorius)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Dravuni, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Laucala, Mabualau, Makaluva, Matamanoa, Matuku, Moala, Monuriki, Nagigia, Namenalala, Namuka, Nananu, Nasoata, Naviti, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Qamea, Rotuma, Solkope, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatoa, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Wayasewa, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Makapu, Makaroa, Mangareva, Manui, Mekiro, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Flint Island, Karoraina, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Apolima, ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Motu Nono, Motu Puuru, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Kao, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Motutapu, Mounu, Niuatoputapu, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tafahi, Tau, Tofua, Toketoke, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uiha, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Akiaki, Anaa, Aratika, Hao, Katiu, Makatea, Makemo, Manihi, Mataiva, Morane, Mururoa, Napuka, Niau, Nukutepipi, Rangiroa, Raroia, Tahanea, Taiaro, Takapoto, Takaroa, Takume, Tatakoto, Temoe, Tikehau, Tikei, Toau, Vahitahi
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumanga, Nanumea, Niulakita, Niutao, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Faioa, Fenua Fo’ou, Futuna, Nukuatea, Nukuloa, Nukutapu, ‘Uvea

local names:

‘ara – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
‘ara pepe – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke / Cook Islands
‘ara-ta’atai – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
‘ara-tai – ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
balawa – Fiji
draudreka – Fiji
fa – Niue; Tonga
fa’a mei – Marquesas
fa feutu – Niue
fa fi – Niue
fa ivi – Niue
fala – Samoa
falavao – Olohega / Tokelau
fala vao – Tokelau
fara – Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga / Cook Islands; Tupai / Society Islands; Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
fara moa – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara moua – Tahiti / Society Islands
fara uteute – Tahiti / Society Islands
fasa – Samoa
hala – Hawai’i Islands
hala kilipaki – Hawai’i Islands (spineless clone)
hara – Tongareva / Cook Islands
hat – Rotuma / Fiji
hata – Rotuma / Fiji
hosoa – Rotuma / Fiji
kiakia – Rotuma / Fiji
kie – Tonga (spineless clone)
lau fala – Samoa (spineless clone)
pandana – Palmerston / Cook Islands
pu hala – Hawai’I Islands
sa’aga – Rotuma / Fiji
te kaina – Kiribati
teou – Nui / Tuvalu
teto – Nui / Tuvalu
tima – Raroia / Tuamotu Archipelago
uea – Tupai / Society Islands
vadra – Fiji
varawa – Fiji
voivoi – Fiji
wala – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

The Screw Pine is a geographically widespread and exceptionally morphologically variable species (or maybe a species complex). In the Polynesian region this plant is found almost everywhere, except for climatically inappropriate areas like New Zealand or Rapa Nui.

The Screw Pine was once one of the most important plants for the Polynesians, and Screw Pine saplings, together with saplings of Breadfruit Trees, Coconut Palms, Taro and several others, were transported by the Polynesian settlers on their boats during inter-island migration – to be planted out at their new island homes.

The Polynesians, over time, reared numerous cultivars, among them such whose leaves are lacking spines on their margins, and which therefore are very well-suited for weaving.

The exceptional variability of the wild and cultivated forms lead to the description of countless species, subspecies and varieties. So, Harold St. John alone described in his “Revision of the Genus Pandanus” various female plants as distinct species – in many cases from geographically very localized populations. In a biological sense, all of these ‘species’ are part of the same population, and furthermore, it is impossible to designate male plants to such ‘species’.

Some of the morphologically distinct forms that are seemingly restricted to the higher elevations of larger islands, like Pandanus papenooensis H. St. John on Tahiti or Pandanus temehaniensis J. W. Moore on Ra’iatea, are often still referred to as distinct species.

(I personally, however, see all of these forms as Pandanus tectorius.)

Nevertheless, the genus is in urgent need of a proper revision!

~~~

As already mentioned, in virtually all parts of Polynesia the leaves were and are used for weaving, among other things, for elaborate mats, especially in Tonga, or boat sails (in former times on the Hawai’i Islands), right up to roofs and walls of houses (!). The stilt roots were used, for example, on the Cook Islands, for house building (as abutment walls) too.

The fruits are fruit heads comprising an aggregate of many tightly bunched phalanges or drupes that are edible. In some cultivars, these drupes reach the size of an apple. They are eaten especially in parts of Kiribati, Tokelau, and in Tuvalu.

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References:

[1] Sven Buerki; Martin W. Callmander; Dion S. Devey; Lauren Chappell; Timothy Gallaher; Jérôme Munzinger; Thomas Haevermans Félix Forest: Straightening out the screw-pines: A first step in understanding phylogenetic relationships within Pandanaceae. Taxon 61(5): 1010-1020. 2012
[2] Timothy Gallaher; Martin W. Gallmander; Sven Buerki; Sterling C. Keeley: A long distance dispersal hypothesis for the Pandanaceae and the origins of the Pandanus tectorius complex. Molecular Phylogenetis and Evolution 83: 20-32.2015

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pandanus-tectorius-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

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edited: 13.02.2017

Macrobranchium lar (Fabricius)

Tahitian Prawn (Macrobranchium lar)

The Tahitian Prawn is a Indopacific species, its native area stretches from the rivers of the coastal regions of East Africa well into Central Polynesia.

The species shows some sexual dimorphism, with the males being larger than the females.

~~~

In Wallis and Futuna the species is cultivated commercially in taro fields.

~~~

On the Cook Islands the species is called koura-vai ti’aka, in Samoa all prawn species, including this one, are named ula vai.

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References:

[1] Gérard Marquet: Freshwater crustaceans of French Polynesia: taxonomy, distribution and biomass (Decapoda). Crustaceana 61(2): 125-140. 1991
[2] N. Mary; A. Dutartre; P. Keith; G. Marquet; P. Sasal: Biodiversité des Eaux Douces de Wallis et Futuna; Mission d’Octobre 2004. Rapport Final, Ministère de l’Outre-Mer 2006

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macrobranchium-lar-sh

Photo: S. Hashizume, 2008

http://jocv183199.web.fc2.com

Laportea interrupta (L.) Chew

Laportea interrupta

Distribution:

Fiji: Beqa, Kadavu, Moala, Nairai, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names:

salato – Fiji
salato ni koro – Fiji
salato vutivali – Fiji
usogo – Rotuma / Fiji

~~~

This species is probably native to Southeast Asia and was probably introduced to Polynesia. [1]

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Imperata conferta (Presl) Ohwi

Imperata conferta

Distribution:

Fiji: Gau, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Matuku, Moala, Moturiki, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Wakaya, Waya, Yanuca
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Tonga: ‘Eua, Niuafo’ou, Tafahi
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

gi – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Planchonella torricellensis (K. Schum.) H. J. Lam

Planchonella torricellensis

Distribution:

Fiji: Rotuma
Niue
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, ‘Upolu, Ta’u, Tutuila
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names: –

Emoia cyanura (Lesson)

Coastal Blue-tailed Skink (Emoia cyanura)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Nassau, Pukapuka, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Fiji: Taveuni, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Kiribati: Flint Island, Tabuaeran
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Mohotani, Nuku Hiva
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: Fanuatapu, ‘Upolu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Tutuila
Society Islands: Huahine, Maupiha’a, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Tahiti
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu
Tonga: ‘Eua; Niuatoputapu; Lifuka (Ha’apai Islands); Tongatapu; ‘Euakafa, Kapa, Kenutu, Mafana, Maninita, Nuku, Pangaimotu, Taula, ‘Umuna, ‘Uta Vava’u, Vaka’eitu (Vava’u Islands)
Tuamotu Archipelago: Ahe, Anaa, Aratika, Fakarava, Hao, Katiu, Makemo, Manihi, Mataiva, Niau, Nihiru, Pukapuka, Rangiroa, Raraka, Raroia, Takaroa, Takume, Tureia
Tuvalu: Funafuti
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

moko – Aitutaki, Miti’aro, Pukapuka, Tongareva / Cook Islands
moko kakara – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
moko sari – Fiji
motukutuku – Mangaia / Cook Islands

***

This ‘species’ in fact isn’t a species in the common sense, it is most probably not monophyletic, that means the species’ name covers more than one species.

The Polynesian populations extend from Fiji into central Polynesia (Cook Islands, Society Islands) and east Polynesia (Tuamotu Archipelago). The western populations may be native, the central and eastern, however, were most probably imported by early Polynesian settlers.

There is still a lot to discover …. [1][2][3][4][5]

*********************

References:

[1] Walter C. Brown: Lizards of the genus Emoia (Scincidae) with observations on their evolution and biogeography. California Academy of Sciences 1991
[2] B. J. Gill: The land reptiles of Western Samoa. Journal of the Royal Society of new Zealand 23(2): 79-89. 1993
[3] B. J. Gill: Notes on the land reptiles of Wallis and futuna, South-West pacific. Records of the Auckland Institute and Museum 32: 55-61.1995
[4] Emilio M. Bruna; Robert N. Fisher; Ted J. Case: Morphological and genetic evolution appear decoupled in Pacific skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Emoia). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B 263: 681-688. 1996
[5] Robert Fisher; Moeumu Uili; Czarina Lese; Fialelei Enoka: Reptiles of the Aleipata Islands: Surveys 2009–2010. In: Alan Tye, David J. Butler: Restoration of Nu’utele and Nu’ulua Islands (Aleipata Group), Samoa, through the management of introduced rats and ants. Conservation International Pacific Islands Program 2013

*********************

emoia-cyanura-dpr

Photo: Dr. Paddy Ryan; by courtesy of Dr. Paddy Ryan

http://www.ryanphotographic.com

*********************

edited: 01.01.2019

Rhyothemis regia (Brauer)

Pacific King Flutterer (Rhyothemis regia)

This beautifully colored dragonfly species is split into at least five subspecies, which are native to the Indo-Australian region.

The Polynesian region itself is inhabited by the subspecies Rhyothemis regia ssp. chalcoptilon Brauer, which is known so far to occur in Fiji, in Samoa, in Tonga, as well as in Wallis and Futuna. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] N. Mary; A. Dutartre; P. Keith; G. Marquet; P. Sasal: Biodiversité des Eaux Douces de Wallis et Futuna; Mission d’Octobre 2004. Rapport Final, Ministère de l’Outre-Mer 2006
[2] Milen Marinov; Mark Schmaedick; Dan Polhemus; Rebecca L. Stirnemann; Fialelei Enoka; Pulemagafa Siaifoi Fa’aumu; Moeumu Uili: Faunistic and taxonomic investigations on the Odonata fauna of the Samoan archipelago with particular focus on taxonomic ambiguities in the “Ischnurine complex”. Journal of the International Dragonfly Fund 91: 1-56. 2015

*********************

rhyothemis-r-chalcoptilon-sh

Photo: S. Hashizume, 2008

http://jocv183199.web.fc2.com

*********************

edited: 14.02.2016

Awaous ocellaris Broussonet

Eyespot Goby (Awaous ocellaris)

The Eyespot Goby is an about 13 cm long freshwater goby that is indigenous to many mangrove areas, estuaries, and rivers from India to Polynesia.

The fish feed on green algae, small crabs, freshwater shrimps, and other invertebrates.

Like all Polynesian freshwater gobies, also the Eyspot Goby has an amphidromous life cycle, which means, that the spawning takes place in the freshwater, but the embryos are washed out into the ocean, where they remain for a planktonic phase before they return into freshwater to grow and to start the life cycle again.

The Samoan name of the species is mano’o ia pala.

*********************

References:

[1] N. Mary; A. Dutartre; P. Keith; G. Marquet; P. Sasal: Biodiversité des Eaux Douces de Wallis et Futuna; Mission d’Octobre 2004. Rapport Final, Ministère de l’Outre-Mer 2006

*********************

awaous-ocellaris-dsj-rer

Depiction from: ‘David Starr Jordan; Robert Earl Richardson: Check-list of species of fishes known from the Philippine Archipelago. Manila: Bureau of Printing 1910′

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.

Canavalia rosea

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Fiji: Kadavu, Makaluva, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Rotuma, Toberua, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya, Yasawa
Marqueseas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Kermadec Islands
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island, Phillip Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Tahiti
Tonga: Alakipeau, Fafa, Fukave, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tongatapu, Tufuka, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

dralawa – Fiji
drautolu – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Egretta sacra (Gmelin)

Pacific Reef-Egret (Egretta sacra ssp. sacra)

The Pacific Reef-Egret is an about 60 cm large, rather short-legged egret, that lives predominantly in coastal areas.

The birds occur in mangrove-filled estuaries or along rocky shores, where they feed on small fish, mollusks and crustaceans.

The nominate race of this species occurs from South and Southeast Asia to Australia and into almost the whole pacific region (with the exception of New Caledonia, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, where the ssp. albolineata (G. R. Gray) occurs).

In some regions of Polynesia the Pacific Reef-Egret is nowadays the only surviving of the native bird species.

There are three color morphs, dark slate grey colored birds, pure white birds as well as an intermediate phase that is mottled white with dark slate grey. It is a somewhat strange fact, that in some areas, for example New Zealand and Samoa, only birds of one of these morphs (in both cases the dark morph) are breeding, while in other places all three morphs live together.

*********************

egretta-s-sacra-ps

Photo: Phil Swanson; by courtesy of Ross Silcock

http://www.rosssilcock.com

Asplenium nidus L.

Asplenium nidus

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rapa, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Takutea
Fiji: Fulaga, Koro, Lakeba, Mabualau, Moturiki, Namuka, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ovalau, Qamea, Rotuma, Taveuni
Gambier Islands: Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu; Kiribati: Palmyra, Teraina
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson, Oeno, Pitcairn
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiha’a, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Faka’ofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: Fafa, Oneata, Pangaimotu, Tafahi, Tongatapu
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Manihi, Mururoa, Niau, Rangiroa, Raroia, Taiaro, Takapoto, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Nanumea, Niulakita, Nui, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, Motu Faioa, Motu Nukuhifalo, Motu Nukuhione, Motu Nukulua, ‘Uvea

local names:

ekaha – Hawai’i Islands
kota’a
– Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kota’a tua-rua – Mangaia / Cook Islands
kota’a panau – ‘Atiu, Ma’uke, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
kota’a roroa – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
laugapapa – Samoa
laukotawa – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands
raukotaha – Manihiki, Raraka / Cook Islands

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Hoya australis R. Br. ex Traill

Hoya australis

Distribution:

Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Fulaga, Gau, Kadavu, Namuka, Nasoata, Nawi, Nayau, Nukulau, Ono, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya, Yanucalevu
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Eua, Niuafo’ou, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Toketoke, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

bitabita – Fiji
bitibiti – Fiji
bitubitu – Fiji
bulibuli sewaro – Fiji
bulibuli sivaro (?) – Fiji
drau bibi – Fiji
fue sa – Samoa
fue selela – Samoa
hoi – Rotuma / Fiji
laumatolu – ‘Eua / Tonga
nabetebete – Fiji
nabetiabete – Fiji
olive vao – Tutuila / Samoa
sinu – Futuna / Wallis & Futuna
suni – Samoa
wa bi – Fiji
wa bibi – Fiji
wa bi levu – Fiji
wa tabua – Fiji

~~~

This species occurs from Australia to western Polynesia, it is divided into several subspecies, of which two are known to occur within the Polynesian region. The nominate race occurs in Fiji as well as in Wallis & Futuna, while the other subspecies, Hoya australis ssp. tenuipes (K. D. Hill) P. I. Forst. & Liddle occurs in Samoa and Tonga.

The species probably hybridizes with other species, one such hybrid (with Hoya chlorantha Rech.) was described from Tutuila, Samoa as Hoya x tuafanua Whistler & Kloppenburg.

*********************

References:

[1] Berthold Seemann: Flora Vitiensis: Adescription of the plants of the Viti or Fiji Islands with an account of their history, uses, and properties. London: L. Reeve 1865-73
[2] Harold St. John; Albert C. Smith: The Vascular Plants of the Horne and Wallis Islands. Pacific Science 25(3): 313-348. 1971
[3] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 4. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1988
[4] Donald R. Drake; Timothy J. Motley; W. Arthur Whistler; Clyde T. Imada: Rain forest vegetation of ‘Eua Island, Kingdom of Tonga. New Zealand Journal of Botany 34: 65-77. 1996

*********************

hoya-australis-savaii-sh

Photo: S. Hashizume, 2008

http://jocv183199.web.fc2.com

*********************

edited: 11.10.2016

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis (L.) Ooststr.

Ipomoea pes-caprae ssp. brasiliensis

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Palmerston, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Fiji: Beqa, Cicia, Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Lakeba, Nayau, Nukulevu, Yanucalailai, Nacula, Nukulau, Makaluva, Moturiki, Nasoata, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Vomo, Vomo Lailai, Waya
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Mangareva, Mekiro, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Green Island, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Nihoa, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Tahuata, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Raoul Island (Kermadec Islands), North Island
Niue
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Rapa Nui
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Manono, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Foa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Motutapu, Nomuka, Nuku, Oneata, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Tau, Tufaka, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Fangataufa, Hao, Hereheretue, Makatea
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names:

fue moa – Samoa
fue tahi– Tonga
kaka – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
kaka pae-tai – Mangaia / Cook Islands
lawere – Fiji
lauivi – Fiji
lauwere – Fiji
pohue – Tongareva / Cook Islands
poue – Palmerston / Cook Islands
ra-pohue – Raraka / Cook Islands
rau-pohue tarona – Manihiki / Cook Islands
wa vui – Fiji
wa vulavula – Fiji
yale – Fiji
yaleyale – Fiji

*********************

edited: 10.04.2019

Lepturus repens (J. R. Forst.) R. Br.

Lepturus repens

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Maria, Raivavae, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Takutea, Tongareva
Fiji: Aiwa, Batiki, Fulaga, Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Kanacea, Koro, Mago, Matuku, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Toberua, Totoya, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Aukena, Akamaru, Kamaka, Mangareva, Taravai
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Kure, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Midway, Pearl and Hermes Reef
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Flint Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Karoraina, Kiritimati, Manra, McKean Island, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra Atoll, Starbuck Island, Tabuaeran, Teraina
New Zealand: North Chanter Island (Kermadec Islands)
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Oeno, Pitcairn Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mai’ao, Manuae, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Mopelia, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Makaha’a, Manima, Maninita, Monuafe, Oneata, Polo’a, Tongatapu, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Makatea, Matureivavao, Niau, Nukutepipi, Rangiroa, Raroia, Takapoto, Takume, Tenararo, Tenarunga, Tepoto Nord, Tikehau, Toau, Vahanga, Vanavana
Tuvalu: Funafuti, Niutao, Nui, Vaitupu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names: –

Spathoglottis pacifica Rchb. f. in B. Seemann

Pacific Ground Orchid (Spathoglottis pacifica)

Distribution:

Fiji: Kadavu, Lakeba, Matuku, Moturiki, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya
Samoa: ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

kalae – Futuna / Wallis & Futuna
kalae se’ekukula – Futuna / Wallis & Futuna
lave’ i moa – Tonga
varavara – Fiji
vavara – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] T. G. Yuncker: Plants of Tonga. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283. 1959
[2] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

*********************

spathoglottis-pacifica-nick-hobgood

Photo: Nick Hobgood

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0

Lentipes kaaea Watson, Keith & Marquet

Red-nosed Goby (Lentipes kaaea)

The Red-nosed Goby, which is closely related to the Red-banded Goby (Lentipes rubrofasciatus Maugé, Marquet & Laboute), was described in the year 2002.

The Red-nosed Goby occurs in swift, clear streams with rocky bottom.

The tiny males are only about 3 cm long, their front body is glimmering greenish to dark blue, the forehead is bright red to purplish red in color, the second dorsal fin and the body area below are likewise bright red in color. The females, which are about 4,5 cm long, are light brown in color and show some darker brown marbling.

The species was originally known only from New Caledonia and from Vanuatu, but was later found to occur as well on the Fiji Islands and on Wallis and Futuna. [1][2]

*********************

References:

[1] R. E. Watson; P. Keith; G. Marquet: Lentipes kaaea, a new species of freshwater goby (Teleostei: Gobioidei: Sicydiinae) from New Caledonia. Bull. Fr. Pêche Piscic. 364: 173-185. 2002
[2] N. Mary; A. Dutartre; P. Keith; G. Marquet; P. Sasal: Biodiversité des Eaux Douces de Wallis et Futuna; Mission d’Octobre 2004. Rapport Final, Ministère de l’Outre-Mer 2006

********************

lentipes-kaaea-apj-wio

Photo: J. Pogonoski; from: ‘Aaron P. Jenkins: A preliminary investigation of priority ichthyofaunal areas for assessing representation in Fiji’s forest reserve network. Technical report. Wetlands International-Oceania & Wildlife Conservation Society-South Pacific, Suva Fiji. 2003′

(Reproduction of this report for educational or non-commercial purposes is authorised without the prior permission from the copyright holder.)

Solanum repandum G. Forst.

Pacific Tomato (Solanum repandum)

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Ovalau, Rabi, Viti Levu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Nuku Hiva
Niue
Samoa: Olosega (ex), ‘Upolu (ex)
Society Islands: Ra’iatea, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua (ex)
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

boro sou – Fiji
huou – Marquesas
kokou – Marquesas
lokumoka – Niue
moreirei – Mangaia / Cook Islands
rerei – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
sou – Fiji
sousou – Fiji
sou vuti – Fiji
tauloku – Futuna, ‘Uvea / Wallis & Futuna
taulo’u – Samoa
touolku – Tonga
vuani – Fiji

~~~

This species is native to Asia or Melanesia and is obviously found in the Polynesian region exclusively in association with human disturbances and is thus most probably not native to Polynesia.

The Polynesian plants were originally described as Solanum repandum G. Forst., but appear to be a cultivated form of the Asian Solanum ferox L., and are now sometimes named as Solanum ferox var. repandum (G. Forst.) Bitter. [1][2]

~~~

There is, however, still very much confusion about the origin of the Polynesian plants, since they may be a spineless form of the Asian Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal or may originate from the American Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal, which seems to be quite similar to it – thus, I prefer to call it by its first name until its identity is fully resolved.

~~~

The species is now extinct in large parts of its former range, for example in Samoa and Tonga. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991
[2] Art Whistler: Biodiversity Conservation Lessons Learned Technical Series. 2: The Rare Plants of Samoa. Conservation International 2011

Ischnura aurora Brauer

Aurora Bluetail (Ischnura aurora)

The genus Ischnura is distributed nearly worldwide, within the Polynesian region it contains 13 described species, plus at least an additional ten hitherto undescribed species, which are known to await their description alone on the Society Islands.

~~~

The Aurora Bluetail is a wandering species, which occurs from India well into East Polynesia.

It is a smaller damselfly species, which reaches a wingspan of about 3 cm. The males are very colorful (see photograph), while the females are rather plain light brown in color.

~~~

The enigmatic Spinytail Forktail (Ischnura spinicauda (Brauer)), described in the year 1865 as a distinct species, is now known to be identical with the Aurora Bluetail. [7]

*********************

References:

[1] M. A. Lieftinck: Some Odonata of Rapa Island, with descriptions of three Polynesian species of Ischnura Charpentier. Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 109: 89-102. 1966
[2] Karin S. Kami; Scott E. Miller: Samoan Insects and related Arthropods: Checklist and Bibliography. Bishop Museum Technical Report 13. 1998
[3] N. Mary; A. Dutartre; P. Keith; G. Marquet; P. Sasal: Biodiversité des Eaux Douces de Wallis et Futuna; Mission d’Octobre 2004. Rapport Final, Ministère de l’Outre-Mer 2006
[4] R. Englund; D. A. Polhemus: A review of the damselfly fauna of the Austral Islands, French Polynesia, with descriptions of two new species (Odonata: Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae). Tijdschrift voor Entomologie 153(1): 25-40. 2010
[5] R. J. Rowe: Ischnura aurora (Brauer 1865) (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae), an Australo-Pacific species. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 37(2): 189-192. 2010
[6] S. A. Hathaway; K. McEachern; R. N. Fisher: Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1007, 78 p. 2011
[7] Milen Marinov; Warren Chin; Eric Edwards; Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: A revised and updated Odonata checklist of Samoa (Insecta: Odonata). Faunistic Studies in South-East Asian and Pacific Island Odonata 5: 1-21. 2013
[8] Milen Marinov; Odile Fossati-Gaschignard; Martin Schorr: On a dragonfly collection from Nuku Hiva, Marquesas Islands and Paea, Tahiti (French Polynesia) with taxonomic discussion of some Polynesian genera (Insecta: Odonata). Faunistic Studies in South-east Asian and Pacific Island Odonata 18: 1-12. 2016

*********************

ischnura-aurora-df

Photo: Dennis Farrell; by courtesy of Dennis Farrell

http://thaiodonata.blogspot.com

*********************

edited: 18.01.2017

Spathoglottis plicata Blume

Spathoglottis plicata

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Niue
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga: ‘Eua, Kao, Niuafo’ou, Tofua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names: –

*********************

edited: 13.12.2018

Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) J. Sm.

Histiopteris incisa

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Rarotonga
Fiji: Viti Levu
Marquesas: Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka, Ua Pou
New Zealand: Auckland Island (Auckland Islands); Campbell Island (Campbell Islands); Little Mangere Island, Rangatira Island (Chatham Islands); Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; North Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Evening Island (Snares Islands); Big Solander Island (Solander Islands); South Island; Stewart Island; Tiritiri Matangi Island; Big Island, Chimneys Island, Kundy Island, Poutama Island, Putauhina Island, Womens Island (Titi Islands)
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Samoa: Olosega, Savai’i, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names:

mata – New Zealand

Calanthe triplicata (Willemet) Ames

Calanthe triplicata

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Tubuai
Fiji: Gau, Koro, Taveuni, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Tatiana Gerus

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0

*********************

edited: 12.12.2018

Oberonia equitans (G. Forst.) Mutel

Oberonia equitans

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Ovalau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Niue
Samoa: Namu’a, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maupiti, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga
Tuamotu Archipelago: Makatea
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

hoe – Austral Islands
rima rima – Society Islands

*********************

References:

[1] Phillip Cribb; W. Arthur Whistler: Orchids of Samoa. Kew Publishing 1996
[2] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

*********************

oberonia-equitans-rt

Photo: Ravahere Taputuarai

(under creative commons licence (3.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Entada phaseoloides (L.) Merr.

Entada phaseoloides

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: Aitutaki, ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Rarotonga
Fiji: Gau, Kabara, Kadavu, Koro, Lakeba, Leleuvia, Matuku, Moala, Moce, Nasoata, Nayau, Nukulau, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu, Waya, Yanuca, Yanucalailai, Yanucalevu
Hawai’i Islands: Kaua’i
Kiribati: Palmyra Atoll
Marquesas: Tahuata
Niue

Samoa: Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Taha’a
Tonga: ‘Eua, Tongatapu, ‘Uta Vava’u
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

soni ni veikau – Fiji
wa damu – Fiji
wa lai – Fiji
wa taqiri – Fiji
wa tiqiri – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

Tectaria repanda (Willd.) Holtt.

Tectaria repanda

Distribution:

Fiji: Rotuma
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names: –

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edited: 12.12.2018

Davallia heterophylla J. Sm.

Davallia heterophylla

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Samoa: Namu’a, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Huahine, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga: Niuafo’ou
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names: –

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References:

[1] H. P. Nooteboom: Notes on Davalliaceae II. A revision of the genus Davallia. Blumea 39: 151-214. 1994
[2] Joel H. Nitta; Jean-Yves Meyer; Alan R. Smith: Pteridophytes of Mo’orea, French Polynesia: Additional New Records. American Fern Journal 101(1): 36-49. 2011

Cyclosorus decadens (Baker) comb. inet.

Cyclosorus decadens

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Tonga: ‘Eua
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names: –

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References:

[1] F. Badré; M. Hoff: Les Ptéridophytes des Iles Wallis et Futuna (Pacifique Sud): écologie et répartition. Feddes Repertorium 106(3-4): 271-290. 1995
[2] P. J. Brownsey; L. R. Perrie: A revised checklist of Fijian ferns and lycophytes. Telopea 13(3): 513-562. 2011
[3] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

Atuna racemosa Raf.

Atuna racemosa

Distribution:

Fiji: Kadavu, Rotuma, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

makita – Fiji
makita damu – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

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atuna-racemosa-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Asplenium cuneatum Lam.

Asplenium cuneatum

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Samoa: Ofu, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna

local names: –

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asplenium-cuneatum-tt

Photo: Tavita Togia
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/tavita_togia2016

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Piper melanostachyum C. DC.

Piper melanostachyum

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names:

yaqoyaqona – Viti Levu / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud.

Eleocharis ochrostachys

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

sasa – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Canavalia sericea A. Gray

Canavalia sericea

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Rarotonga
Fiji: Aiwa, Fulaga, Kadavu, Koro, Leleuvia, Makaluva, Malolo, Moturiki, Nairai, Nasoata, Navutu-i-loma, Nayau, Nukulau, Nukulevu, Ogea Driki, Ogea Levu, Ovalau, Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Vatulele, Viti Levu, Waya, Yacata
Gambier Islands: Agakauitai, Akamaru, Aukena, Kamaka, Makaroa, Mangareva, Motu Teiku, Taravai
Niue
Samoa: Olosega, Savai’i, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Huahine
Tonga: Alakipeau, ‘Ata, ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Makaha’a, Malinoa, Manima, Monuafe, Onevai, Onevao, Pangaimotu, Polo’a, Tau, Toketoke, Tongatapu, Tufaka, ‘Uta Vava’u, Velitoa Hahake, Velitoa Hihifo
Tuamotu Archipelago: Anaa, Hao, Makemo, Niau
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names:

dralawa – Fiji
wa vue – Koro / Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 3. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1985

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canavalia-sericea-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cyperus seemannianus Boeckeler

Cyperus seemannianus

Distribution:

Fiji: Moala, Nairai, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Niue
Samoa: Fanuatapu, Namu’a, Nu’utele, Savai’i, Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Tonga
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna

local names:

tube ni waqa – Fiji

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References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Angiopteris evecta (G. Forst.) Hoffm.

Angiopteris evecta

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa, Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Ma’uke, Rarotonga
Fiji: Kadavu, Lakeba, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Niue
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maupiti, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti
Tonga: ‘Eua, Late, Tafahi, Tongatapu
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi, Futuna, ‘Uvea

local names:

ana’e – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands
‘ana’e – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
hulufe vai – Tonga
mbalambala – Rotuma / Fiji
na’e – Mangaia / Cook Islands
nahe – Tahiti / Society Islands
nase – Samoa
palatao – Niue
rau na’e – Mangaia / Cook Islands

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angiopteris-evecta-fks

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com