Myosotis traversii Hook. f.

Myosotis traversii

Distribution:

New Zealand: South Island

local name: –

~~~

Myosotis traversii var. traversii
Myosotis traversii var. cantabrica L. B. Moore
Myosotis traversii var. cinerascens (Petrie) L. B. Moore (ex)

*********************

Photo: John Barkla
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/john_barkla

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Carex sectoides (Kük.) Edgar

Carex sectoides

Distribution:

New Zealand: Antipodes Islands; Chatham Islands

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Peter de Lange
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/pjd1

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 22.08.2017

Persicaria acuminata (Kunth) M. Gómez.

Persicaria acuminata

Distribution:

Rapa Nui: Rapa Nui

local names:

tavari – Rapa Nui

*********************

References:

[1] Georg Zizka: Flowering Plants of Easter Island. Palmarum Hortus Francofortensis 3. 1991

*********************

Depiction from: ‘C. F. P. von Martius; A. W. Eichler; I. Urban: Flora Brasiliensis. Monachii et Lipsiae: R. Oldenbourg 1840-1906’

http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org

Coprosma rhamnoides A. Cunn.

Coprosma rhamnoides

Distribution:

New Zealand: Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; Little Barrier Island; North Island; South Island; Stewart Island; Tiritiri Matangi Island

local names: –

Veronica calycina R. Br.

Veronica calycina

Distribution:

New Zealand: North Island

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Reiner Richter
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/reiner

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 05.02.2018

Calystegia tuguriorum (G. Forst.) Hook. f.

Calystegia tuguriorum

Distribution:

New Zealand: Rangatira Island (Chatham Islands); Cuvier Island; Great Barrier Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); Kapiti Island; North Island; South Island; Stewart Island; Three Kings Islands; Womens Island (Titi Islands)

local names: –

Doodia brackenridgei Carruth. ex Seem.

Doodia brackenridgei

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] André Luís Gasper; Vinícius Antonio de Oliveira Dittrich; Alan R. Smith; Alexandre Salino: A classification for Blechnaceae (Polypodiales: Polypodiopsida): New genera, resurrected names, and combinations. Phytotaxa 275(3): 191-227. 2016

*********************

edited: 03.02.2018

Hypolimnas bolina (L.)

Blue Moon Butterfly (Hypolimnas bolina)

The Blue Moon Butterfly, also known under the markedly ugly name Great Eggfly, was described in 1764.

The species has an exceptional wide area of distribution, which stretches from Madagascar over Asia and Australia into eastern Polynesia.

Three of the several subspecies occur within the Polynesian region, these are: Hypolimnas bolina ssp. otaheitae (Felder), which occurs on the Austral- and the Cook Islands, the Marquesas, the Society Islands, the Pitcairn Islands, and on Rapa Nui; Hypolimnas bolina ssp. pallescens (Butler), which is found in Fiji, in Tokelau, in Tonga, and in Samoa; Hypolimnas bolina ssp. rarik (Eschscholtz), which occurs in some parts of Kiribati as well as in Tuvalu. Another subspecies, Hypolimnas bolina ssp. nerina (Fabricius) is native to Australia and regularely visits New Zealand, but has not yet established a breeding population there, but probably will do so in time, and thus should be mentioned here too.

Males and females show a striking sexual dimorphism, males are always black with some white spots on the wings, which again are surrounded by a glossy dark blue ring. The females are much more variable in coloration, they furthermore produce several morphotypes, which, in appearance, often resemble other butterfly species, a phenomenon called mimicry.

The males are very territorial, while the females are wandering over wide ranges.

The larvae feed on plant species from the Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Malvaceae and the Urticaceae family.

~~~

In Niue this butterfly is called pepe mahina lanu.

*********************

References:

[1] R. H. Van Zwaluwenburg: The Insects of Canton Island. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 11(3): 300-312. 1943
[2] Alden D. Hinckley: Ecology of Terrestrial Arthropods on the Tokelau Atolls. Atoll Research Bulletin 124: 1-18. 1969
[3] Jaqueline Y. Miller; Lee D. Miller: The Butterflies of the Tonga Islands and Niue, Cook Islands, with the Descriptions of two new subspecies. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 34: 1-24. 1993
[4] Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: Butterflies of Fiji. The Weta 24(1): 5-12. 2002
[5] Neal L. Evenhuis: Checklist of Fijian Lepidoptera. Bishop Museum Technical Report 38(13): 1-53. 2007
[6] Brian Patrick; Hamish Patrick: Butterflies of the South Pacific. Otago University Press 2012

*********************

Photo: Antonio Machado; by courtesy of Antonio Machado

*********************

edited: 18.08.2017

Dendrobium carnicarinum Kores

Dendrobium carnicarinum

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu

local names: –

~~~

This species is endemic to the Fijian Islands, where it is known only from the type collection, which was made in the year 1966 on the island of Viti Levu. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

Xanthagrion erythroneurum Sélys

Red and Blue Damsel (Xanthagrion erythroneurum)

The Red and Blue Damsel is (as far as known) the only species in its genus.

It is distributed mainly in Australia including Tasmania, but occurs also on New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands as well as on Fiji, where it seems to be quite rare, however. The species is said to occur in New Zealand as well, but I could not find any source yet to confirm this.

The Red and Blue Damsel is about 3 cm long, the sexes in this species are more or less identical in their colouration.

The ovoposition obviously takes place in standing water (?).

*********************

Photo: Sandra Wallace; by courtesy of Sandra Wallace

http://www.flickr.com/photos/20973373@N08

Platylepis heteromorpha Rchb. f.

Platylepis heteromorpha

Distribution:

Fiji
Samoa: Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila, ‘Upolu

local names: –

~~~

This species occurs on the Samoan Islands and probably on Fiji as well.

Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br.

Hurricane-Grass (Fimbristylis cymosa)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Rimatara, Rurutu, Tubuai
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Mangaia, Manihiki, Manuae, Ma’uke, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Suwarrow, Tongareva
Fiji: Rotuma, Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Mangareva, Taravai, Totegegie
Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu
Kiribati: Abariringa, Baker Island, Enderbury Island, Jarvis Island, Kiritimati, Manra, Nikumaroro, Orona, Palmyra-Atoll, Tabuaeran, Teraina
Marquesas: Eiao, Ua Huka
Niue
Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Fanuatapu, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, Tutuila
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Huahine, Maiao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Taha’a, Tahiti, Tetiaroa, Tupai
Tokelau: Atafu, Fakaofo, Nukunonu, Olohega
Tonga: ‘Eua, Fafa, Fukave, Malinoa, Manima
Tuamotu Archipelago: Apataki, Hao, Makatea, Manihi, Niau, Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tenarunga, Tikehau, Toau
Tuvalu: Nui
Wallis & Futuna: Futuna, ‘Uvea

local name:

mati upoo – Tuamotu Archipelago
mauku – ‘Atiu, Manihiki, Rakahanga, Tongareva / Cook Islands
mau’u’aki’aki – Hawai’i Islands
mouku – Tuamotu Archipelago
kukuti – Tuamotu Archipelago
pako pako – Tahiti / Society Islands
papa ‘enua – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
pupu – Rotuma / Fiji
te uteute ni mane – Kiribati
tuise – Tokelau
tumu ‘enua – Palmerston / Cook Islands
uti’uti hu’a – Society Islands
vayavaya – Nassau, Pukapuka / Cook Islands

~~~

Two of three accepted subspecies of this species are known to occur within the Polynesian region, Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. cymosa R. Br. and Fimbristylis cymosa ssp. umbellatocapitata (Hillebr.) T. Koyama.

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Geranium hillebrandii Aedo & Muñoz Garm.

Geranium hillebrandii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Maui

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Hank L. Oppenheimer, Plant Extinction Prevention Program
USFWS – Pacific Region

(under creative commons license (2.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.0

Orthiopteris tenuis (Brack.) Brownlie

Orthiopteris tenuis

Distribution:

Fiji: Kadavu, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local name: –

~~~

endemic to Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Thien-Tam Luong; Peter H. Hovenkamp; Marc S. M. Sosef: Revision of the fern genus Orthiopteris (Saccolomataceae) in Malesia and adjacent regions. PhytoKeys 53: 39-71. 2015

Notogrammitis rigida (Hombron) Parris

Notogrammitis rigida

Distribution:

New Zealand: Auckland Islands; Big Solander Island (Solander Islands); South Island; Stewart Island

local names: –

Macrophthalmus convexus Stimpson

Convex Sentinel Crab (Macrophthalmus convexus)

The Convex Sentinel Crabs are very small crabs having an average carapace diameter of about 1 x 1,5 cm to 1,5 x 3 cm and exceedingly long eyestalks.

They live in the intertidal zone, where they can be found abundantly on muddy places near the outlets of small streams, and are therefore absent from islands without such freshwater streams, e.g. the Tuamotus. The crabs feed on smallest food particles, which they sift out from the sand.

These crabs dig their burrows in muddy sand, in which they flee at the slightest disturbance.

On Aitutaki the crabs are called papaka.

*********************

Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decapoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

Carex indica L.

Carex indica

Distribution:

Fiji: Gau, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names:

caca – Fiji
misimisi – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Pteropus tonganus Quoy & Gaimard

Tongan Fruit-Bat (Pteropus tonganus)

The Tongan Fruit-Bat occurs with several subspecies in an area that stretches from New Guinea to the Cook Islands in Central Polynesia, whereby the form, that can be found in Polynesia, represents the nominate race.

These animals reach a wing span of more than one metre and spend the day more or less sleeping in roosting trees, where they sometimes form giant colonies.

In most parts of its geographic range the species is an important source of protein and is therefore heavily hunted, but also because the Fruit-Bats, being frugivores, can cause enormous damages in fruiting trees. Hence the species has become rare in some parts of its geographic range, in others it has even disappeared completely.

In the Kingdom of Tonga in contrast Tongan Fruit-Bats are considered as property of the royal family and therefore are protected from hunting – a very effective protection.

On the Cook Islands, the eastern most edge of its distribution area, the Tongan Fruit-Bat is called moa kirikiri, which means ‘leather chicken’. On the Fijian Islands it is called beka, bekua (in the west part of Viti Levu), beka dina or doli (on Kadavu).

*********************

References:

[1] Jorge M. Palmeirim; Alan Champion; Alivereti Naikatini, Jone Niukula; Marika Tuiwawa; Martin Fisher; Mere Yabaki-Gounder; Sólveig Thorsteinsdóttir; Stanley Qalovaki; Thomas Dunn: Distribution, Status, and Conservation of Bats in the Fiji Islands. Oryx 41(4): 509-519. 2006

********************

Photo: Dr. Paddy Ryan; by courtesy of Dr. Paddy Ryan

http://www.ryanphotographic.com

Fimbristylis squarrosa var. esquarrosa Makino

Fimbristylis squarrosa var. esquarrosa

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu
New Zealand: Great Barrier Island; North Island

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Hyposmocoma eliai Schmitz & Rubinoff

Elia’s Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma eliai)

This species was described in the year 2011, it is so far known only from the type locality near the Nawiliwili bay in the southeast of the island of Kaua’i.

It is one of the smallest species of its genus, males have a wingspan of only about 0,45 to 0,5 cm. The color of the forewings is blackish, except for three disconnected white stripes on each of the wings, and some dark grey scales, the hindwings are completely grey in color.

The larvae live on large barren volcanic rocks along the shoreline, which regularly getting sprayed with salty sea water. They build a bag-shaped, about 0,4 cm long larval case, made of fine sand interwoven with silk.

They obviously feed on algae. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: Ecologically and Morphologically Remarkable New Cosmet Moth Species of the Genus Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, with Reference to the Spectacular Diversity of Larval Cases. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 104(1): 1-15. 2011

*********************

edited: 01.03.2016

Hymenophyllum denticulatum Sw.

Hymenophyllum denticulatum

Distribution:

Fiji: Viti Levu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Atsushi Ebihara; Jean-Yves Dubuisson; Kunio Iwatsuki; Sabine Hennequin; Motomi Ito: A taxonomic revision of Hymenophyllaceae. Blumea 52(2): 1-60. 2006
[2] P. J. Brownsey; L. R. Perrie: A revised checklist of Fijian ferns and lycophytes. Telopea 13(3): 513-562. 2011

Hibiscus arnottianus A. Gray

Arnott’s Hibiscus (Hibiscus arnottianus)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Moloka’i, O’ahu

local name:

aloalo – Hawai’i Islands
hau hele – Hawai’i Islands
koki’o ke’oke’o – Hawai’i Islands
koki’o kea – Hawai’i Islands
pamakani – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

three subspecies:

Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. arnottianus A. Gray – O’ahu
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. immaculatus (M. J. Roe) D. M. Bates – Moloka’i
Hibiscus arnottianus ssp. punaluuensis (Skottsb.) D. M. Bates – O’ahu

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Podocarpus decipiens N. E. Gray

Podocarpus decipiens

Distribution:

Fiji: Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names:

asiboloa – Fiji
bau – Fiji
gagali – Fiji
gali – Fiji
kuasi – Fiji
salusalu – Fiji
yasibolo – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Gingidia montana (J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.) J. W. Dawson

Gingidia montana

Distribution:

New Zealand: North Island; South Island

local names: –

~~~

This species is known to naturally hybridize on the South Island with Gingidia decipiens (Hook. f.) J. W. Dawson, Gingidia enysii (Kirk) J. W. Dawson, and Gingidia trifoliolata (Hook. f.) J. W. Dawson.

*********************

Photo: John Barkla
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/john_barkla

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Coprosma depressa Colenso ex Hook. f.

Coprosma depressa

Distribution:

New Zealand: Chatham Islands; North Island; South Island; Stewart Island; Putauhina Island (Titi Islands)

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Alice Shanks
https://www.inaturalist.org/people/alice_shanks

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

Boerhavia repens L.

Boerhavia repens

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: French Frigate Shoals, Hawai’i, Kaho’olawe, Kaua’i, Ka’ula, Kure, Lana’i, Laysan, Lehua, Lisianski, Maui, Midway, Moloka’i, Ni’ihau, O’ahu, Pearl and Hermes
Kiribati: Karoraina, Kiritimati, Malden Island, Starbuck Island, Vostok Island
Marquesas: Mohotani, Nuku Hiva, Ua Huka
Niue (?)
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u, Tutuila

local names:

alena – Hawai’i Islands
anena – Hawai’i Islands
nena – Hawai’i Islands
te wao – Kiribati

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Atriplex billardieri (Moq.) Hook. f.

Atriplex billardieri

Distribution:

New Zealand: Chatham Islands; South Island (ex); Stewart Island

local names: –

Sicyos maximowiczii Cogn.

Sicyos maximowiczii

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Kure, Lehua, Lisianski, Laysan, Ni’ihau, O’ahu (ex), Pearl and Hermes

local names: –

~~~

Sicyos semitonsus (Sicyos maximowiczii x pachycarpus)

Davallia brevipes Copel.

Davallia brevipes

Distribution:

Samoa: ‘Upolu

local names: –

~~~

This species is known from the Samoan Islands from only a single collection, and otherwise occurs Southeast Asia and Melanesia. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] H. P. Nooteboom: Notes on Davalliaceae II. A revision of the genus Davallia. Blumea 39: 151-214. 1994

Planchonella membranacea H. J. Lam.

Planchonella membranacea

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Balavu, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Tonga: ‘Uta Vava’u

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Justin Gerlach: Partula – Icons of Evolution

Justin Gerlach: Partula – Icons of Evolution

The genus Partula, extremely rich in Polynesian species, will soon get it’s newest monograph (I’m not sure, but it may be the first monograph at all).

The book, written by Justin Gerlach and named “Partula – Icons of Evolution”, is nearly ready to be published, but the project can still be supported.:

https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/507116283/partula-icons-of-evolution

 

Antipodochlora braueri Selys

Dusk Dragonfly (Antipodochlora braueri)

The Dusk Dragonfly was described in the year 1871, it is the sole member of its genus.

The species is endemic to New Zealand, both the larvae as well as the adult individuals are specialized forest dwellers, being widely distributed in various types of native forest.

The peak activity occurs in the few hours before dusk (hence its trivial name), at higher elevations, however, the species is active over a longer period of the day. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] W. J. Winstanley: A preliminary account of the habitat of Antipodochlora braueri (Odonata: Corduliidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Entomologist 7(2): 141-148. 1980

*********************

Photo: Dr. Milen Marinov; by courtesy of Dr. Milen Marinov

Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm. f.) Sw.

Cheilanthes tenuifolia

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rapa
Fiji: Viti Levu
Gambier Islands: Akamaru, Makaroa
Marquesas: Nuku Hiva
Samoa
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mai’ao, Me’eti’a, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti

local names: –

Ocypode pallidula Hombron & Jacquinot

Common Ghost-Crab (Ocypode pallidula)

Distribution:

Austral Islands: Raivavae, Rurutu
Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Aitutaki, Ma’uke, Mangaia, Manuae, Miti’aro, Nassau, Palmerston, Pukapuka, Rakahanga, Rarotonga, Tongareva
Gambier Islands: Aukena, Mangareva
Hawai’i Islands: Laysan, Midway, O’ahu
Norfolk Islands: Norfolk Island
Tuamotu Archipelago: Manihiki, Marutea (Sud), Moruroa, Raraka
Wallis & Futuna: Alofi

local names:

‘atike – Aitutaki / Cook Islands
kalami – Pukapuka / Cook Islands
kohiti – Rakahanga / Cook Islands
kohitihiti – Tongareva / Cook Islands
ko’iti – Rarotonga / Cook Islands
tike – Ma’uke / Cook Islands
tiketike – ‘Atiu, Miti’aro / Cook Islands
titorotai – Mangaia / Cook Islands

***

The Common Ghost-Crab is indigenous in the Indo-Pacific region, where it can be found running about the beaches in search for food, and digging burrows in the sand.

It is a rather small species, reaching a carapace size of about 2,5 cm in diameter.

On the Cook Islands, where the species seems to be very common, it is known by several names, including ‘atike, kalami, kohiti, kohitihiti, ko’iti, tike, tiketike and titorotai.

**********************

References:

[1] Katsushi Sakai; Michael Türkay: Revision of the genus Ocypode with the description of a new genus, Hoplocypode (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 56(2): 665-793. 2013

**********************

Photo: J. Poupin; by courtesy of J. Poupin

http://decpoda.ecole-navale.fr/index.php
http://decapoda.free.fr

**********************

edited: 17.12.2018

Hyposmocoma moopalikea Schmitz & Rubinoff

Palikea Water Cosmet Moth (Hyposmocoma moopalikea)

The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth was described in the year 2011.

The species is endemic to the island of Maui, it is so far known only from the vicinity of the Palikea stream in the Kipahulu valley.

The case-bearing caterpillars are aquatic, the larval cases are burrito-shaped and 0,5 to 0,7 cm in length.

The male moth reaches a wingspan of about 1 cm, the female is slightly larger. The forewings are mostly dark brown with some scattered off-white scales. [1]

~~~

The Palikea Water Cosmet Moth appears to be very rare. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Patrick Schmitz; Daniel Rubinoff: The Hawaiian amphibious caterpillar guild: new species of Hyposmocoma (Lepidoptera: Cosmopterigidae) confirm distinct aquatic invasions and complex speciation patterns. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 162(1): 15–42. 2011

Cyperus macrophyllus (Brongn.) Boeckeler

Cyperus macrophyllus

Distribution:

Cook Islands: Rarotonga
Society Islands: Bora Bora, Mo’orea, Ra’iatea, Tahiti

local names:

mou’u ha’ari – Society Islands
mou uu – Society Islands

Thyrocopa apatela (Walsingham)

Flightless Haleakala Moth (Thyrocopa apatela)

The Haleakala Flightless Moth, also named as Grasshopper Moth, lives in the alpine zones of the Haleakala volcano.

Both sexes of this unconspicuous, about 1,5 cm long moth species have short wings and are flighless. They flutter in the wind, resembling dried leaves and are blown to appropriate deposits of organic debris, that have accumulated in rock crevices, where they mate and lay eggs.

The larvae can be found under large rocks, where the build web nests and where they feed on dried leaves and other organic debris.

********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Comodica coarctata (Clarke)

Rapa Comodica Moth (Comodica coarctata)

This species was described in the year 1971, it is so far known only from the island of Rapa.

The moth reaches a wingspan of 0,8 to 1 cm.

The caterpillars feed on dead, dry fruits or dry leaves of the Screw Pine (Pandanus tectorius Parkinson ex Du Roi), they hide themselves in a cocoon, constructed of tightly cemented silk, plant fibers and frass.

*********************

References:

[1] J. F. G. Clarke: The Lepidoptera of Rapa Island. Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 56. 1971

*********************

Photo: Peter T. Oboyski; by courtesy of Peter T. Oboyski

http://nature.berkeley.edu/~poboyski/Lepidoptera/SocietyIslands.htm

*********************

edited: 15.08.2017

Leiopelma archeyi Turbott

Archey’s Frog (Leiopelma archeyi)

Archey’s Frog is the smallest of the seven known (four living and three extinct) species from the New Zealand Frog family (Leiopelmatidae), a family of very primitive frogs endemic to New Zealand.

The reproduction in all species within this family is fully terrestrial, the young hatch from the eggs as fully developed, yet still tailed froglets, which crawl onto the back of their father to be carried around for several weeks.

The females are about 3,7 cm in total length, while the males are slightly smaller at 3,1 cm.

Archey’s Frog is known from two disjunct locations on New Zealand’s North Island. But as in many other amphibian species all over the world, the populations of this species are rapidly declining, and it is now at significant risk of imminent extinction.

*********************

Photo: Dr. Paddy Ryan; by courtesy of Dr. Paddy Ryan

http://www.ryanphotographic.com

*********************

edited: 26.08.2015

Coprosma robusta Raoul

Coprosma robusta

Distribution:

New Zealand: Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; Tatapihi Island (Mokohinau Islands); North Island; Aorangi Island, Archway Island (Poor Knights Islands); Rangitoto Island; South Island; Tiritiri Matangi Island

local names:

karamu – New Zealand

Ptilinopus goodwinii Holyoak

Lilac-crowned Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus goodwinii)

Distribution:

Cook Islands: ‘Atiu, Ma’uke

local names:

kukupa – ‘Atiu / Cook Islands

***

This Lilac-crowned Fruit Dove is officially treated as a subspecies of the Rarotongan Fruit Dove (Ptilinopus rarotongensis Hartlaub & Finsch) from the island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands, yet differs quite much from that species and can be separated as a distinct species.

The species is now restricted to the island of ‘Atiu, Cook Islands, but another subspecies, not yet formally described, formerly inhabited the neighboring island of Ma’uke.

***

Historical records of fruit doves from the islands of Aitutaki and Mangaia, Cook Islands, are most likely best regarded as distinct species as well.

*********************

edited: 01.01.2019

Fautaua diagonalis Collenette

Diagonal-lined Owlet Moth (Fautaua diagonalis)

The Diagonal-lined Owlet Moth was described in the year 1928, it is the type species of the genus, that is restricted exclusively to the Society Islands archipelago.

This species occurs on the islands of Mo’orea and Tahiti, its biology, however, seems to be unknown so far.

*********************

Photo: Peter T. Oboyski; by courtesy of Peter T. Oboyski

http://nature.berkeley.edu/~poboyski/Lepidoptera/SocietyIslands.htm

Mumfordia spinata Van Dyke

Spined Scavenger Beetle (Mumfordia spinata)

This species was described in 1932.

The Spined Scavanger Beetle is endemic to the island of Hiva Oa, Marquesas.

The biology of this species is still completely unknown.

*********************

References:

[1] E. C. Van Dyke: Two new Lathridiidae from the Marquesas. Bishop Museum Bulletin 98: 237-234. 1932

Haliophyle connexa (Warren)

Haliophyle connexa

This species is endemic to the island of Hawai’i, where it is known from the area around Olaa at an elevation of about 610 m, nothing else is known about this species.

*********************
References:

[1] E. C. Zimmerman: Insects of Hawaii 7, Macrolepidoptera. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu 1958

Cyanea konahuanuiensis Sporck-Koehler, Koehler, Marquez, Waite & Williams

Kanohuanui Lobelia (Cyanea konahuanuiensis)

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: O’ahu

local names: –

~~~

This species was just described in 2015.

The Kanohuanui Lobelia is known only from the Konahua-nui summit area in the Ko’olau Mountains of O’ahu, where it grows in wet forests at elevations of about 880 to 930 m. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Margaret Sporck-Koehler, Tobias Koehler, Sebastian Marquez, Mashuri Waite, Adam Williams: A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys 46: 45-60. 2015

*********************

Photo from: ‘Margaret Sporck-Koehler, Tobias Koehler, Sebastian Marquez, Mashuri Waite, Adam Williams: A new species of Cyanea (Campanulaceae, Lobelioideae), from the Ko‘olau Mountains of O‘ahu, Hawaiian Islands. PhytoKeys 46: 45-60. 2015’

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0

Dianella nigra Colenso

Dianella nigra

Distribution:

New Zealand: Cuvier Island; Great Barrier Island; Goat Island; Kapiti Island; Little Barrier Island; North Island; Pakihi Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); South Island; Great Island (Three Kings Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island

local names:

plant:

piopio – New Zealand
turutu – New Zealand

plant parts:

pepepe – New Zealand (fruit)
reua – New Zealand (fruit)

*********************

References:

[1] P. B. Heenan; P. J. de Lange: Two new species of Dianella (Hemerocallidaceae) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany 45: 269-285. 2007

Pritchardia remota Becc.

Pritchardia remota

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Nihoa

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Cyrtandra lysiocepala (A. Gray) C. B. Clarke

Cyrtandra lysiocepala

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i

local names: –

Metrosideros polymorpha Gaudich.

Metrosideros polymorpha

Distribution:

Hawai’i Islands: Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

local names:

‘ahihi ku ma kua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ahihi lehua – Hawai’i Islands
kumakua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua – Hawai’i Islands
lehua ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
lehua papa – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohi’a ‘ahihi – Hawai’i Islands
‘ohia lehua – Hawai’i Islands

~~~

The ‘ohi’a lehua is by far the most common of the endemic tree species on the Hawaiian Islands and inhabits many areas on all of the main islands.

The species is highly variable, being usually a tall tree, but sometimes a small cushion-like shrub, and is thus split into eight varieties, these include:

Metrosideros polymorpha var. dieteri J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to Kaua’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. glaberrima (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. incana (H. Lév.) H. St. John found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. macrophylla (Rock) H. St. John only on Hawai’i and Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. newellii (Rock) H. St. John endemic to Hawai’i
Metrosideros polymorpha var. polymorpha Gaudich. found on Hawai’i, Kaua’i, Lana’i, Maui, O’ahu
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pseudorugosa (Skottsb.) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. endemic to western Maui
Metrosideros polymorpha var. pumila (A. Heller) J. W. Dawson & Stemmerm. found on Kaua’i, Maui, Moloka’i, O’ahu

~~~

The flowers of the ‘ohi’a lehua are usually red in color, but there are also orange- and yellow-flowering individuals. The nectar-rich flowers are one of the most important food resources, not only for various endemic and native insect species, but also for the few remaining endemic honeycreepers.

The ‘ohi’a lehua is a pioneer species on solidified lava, its dead leaves build the first fertile soil and therewith the basic conditions for further plant life. The tree is furthermore a very important basic component of another habitat, which, in such a way, is found only on the Hawaiian Islands – lava tubes. The roots of the trees, growing above such a lava tube, dangle from the ceiling of the tube, allowing rainwater to drip in, and furthermore build the basis of a food chain for an enormous number of specialized, cavernicolous arthropod species.

The wood is very hard and was in former times used for the construction of houses and temples (heiau), and of course for many other purposes, the bright red flowers (lehua), as well as the reddish colored new leaf shoots (liko) were/are used to make lei.

*********************

References:

[1] N. DeBoer; E. A. Stacy: Divergence within and among 3 varieties of the endemic tree, ‘Ohi’a Lehua (Metrosideros polymorpha) on the eastern slope of Hawai’i Island. Journal of Herdity 104(4): 1-10. 2013
[2] E. A. Stacy; J. B. Johansen; T. Sakishima; D. K. Price; Y. Pillon: Incipient radiation within the dominant Hawaiian tree Metrosideros polymorpha. Heredity (Edinb) 113(4): 334-342. 2014

*********************

Photo: Kim Starr & Forest Starr; by courtesy of Kim Starr & Forest Starr

http://www.starrenvironmental.com

Pipturus platyphyllus Wedd.

Pipturus platyphyllus

Distribution:

Fiji: Nayau, Ovalau, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names:

gala – Fiji
rema – Fiji
tagica – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Crossostylis richii (A. Gray) A. C. Sm.

Crossostylis richii

Distribution:

Fiji: Gau, Ovalau, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names:

dakua ni dribidribi – Viti Levu / Fiji
sivia – Viti Levu / Fiji
sukau – Viti Levu / Fiji
tiri vanua – Fiji
wakacere – Vanua Levu / Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 2. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1981

Bulbophyllum clandestinum Lindl.

Bulbophyllum clandestinum

Distribution:

Fiji: Vanua Levu, Viti Levu

local names: –

~~~

This species is widespread in the Old World Tropics, occuring from southeastern Asia to Fiji, where it, however, appears to be rather rare. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 5. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1991

Cyclosorus rodigasianus (T. Moore) Ching

Cyclosorus rodigasianus

Distribution:

Fiji: Rotuma
Samoa: Ofu, Olosega, Ta’u (?), Tutuila, ‘Upolu

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Art Whistler: A Study of the Rare Plants of American Samoa. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Honolulu, Hawai’i 1998
[2] Li-Juan He; Xian-Chun Zhang: Exploring generic delimination within the fern family Thelypteridaceae. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 757-764. 2012

Phyllanthus pitcairnense (H. St. John) W. L. Wagner & Lorence

Phyllanthus pitcairnense

Distribution:

Pitcairn Islands: Henderson Island, Pitcairn Island

local names: –

*********************

References:

[1] Warren L. Wagner; David H. Lorence: A nomenclator of Pacific oceanic island Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae), including Glochidion. In: Lorence DH, Wagner WL (Eds) Botany of the Marquesas Islands: new taxa, combinations, and revisions. PhytoKeys 4: 67-94. 2011

Lepidium solandri Kirk

Lepidium solandri

Distribution:

New Zealand: South Island

local name: –

Luzula banksiana Meyer

Luzula banksiana

Distribution:

New Zealand: Rangatira Island (Chatham Islands); Kapiti Island; North Island; Big Solander Island (Solander Islands); South Island; Stewart Island

local names: –

~~~

This species contains five varieties, which probably occur all over New Zealand.:

Luzula banksiana var. acra Edgar
Luzula banksiana var. banksiana
Luzula banksiana var. migrata (Buch.) Edgar
Luzula banksiana var. orina Edgar
Luzula banksiana var. rhadina (Buch.) Edgar

*********************

Photo: Matt Ward
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/mattward

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 01.02.2018

Austrolestes colensonis White

New Zealand Blue Damselfly (Austrolestes colensonis)

The New Zealand Blue Damselfly, known by the Maori as kekewai, is a common species of small ditches, ponds, and swamps, its larvae are able to inhabit even shallow and temporary water bodies.

The species is capable of changing its coloration to aid thermoregulation, so it turns darker in cold weather and lighter in sunshine. [1]

*********************

References:

[1] W. Joy Crumpton: Notes on occurrence of Odonata in Canterbury and Westland (New Zealand). The New Zealand Entomologist 6(3): 302-304. 1977

*********************

Photo: Dr. Milen Marinov; by courtesy of Dr. Milen Marinov

Endodonta apiculata Ancey

Pointed Disc Snail (Endodonta apiculata)

The Pointed Disc Snail, which was restricted to the island of Kaua’i, Hawaiian Islands, was described in the year 1889.

The shells of this species reached an average size of 0,6 cm in diameter. [1]

~~~

The genus Endodonta contains a little more than 10 species, all, except probably for one, are now obviously extinct.

The destruction of large areas of the native lowland habitats led to their extinction, and introduced invasive species, especially several aggressive ant species (for example the Red Fire Ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) or the Little Fire Ant (Wasmannia auropunctata (Roger))) are a very serious threat to the last remaining endemic snail species, and are blamed for the extinction of many island endemic species. [2]

*********************

References:

[1] Alan Solem: Endodontoid land snails from Pacific Islands (Mollusca: Pulmonata: Sigmurethra). Part I, Family Endodontidae. Field Museum of Natural History Chicago, Illinois 1976
[2] Norine W. Yeung; Kenneth A. Hayes: Update on the status of the remaining Hawaiian land snail species Part 4: Punctidae and Endodontidae. 2016

*********************

edited: 23.03.2017

Abutilon pitcairnense Fosberg

Abutilon pitcairnense

Distribution:

Pitcairn Islands: Pitcairn Island

local name:

yellow foutu – Pitcairn / Pitcairn Islands
yellow fowtoo – Pitcairn / Pitcairn Islands

*********************

References:

[1] F. Raymond Fosberg; Marie-Hélène Sachet: Polynesian Plant Studies 6-18. Smithsonian Institution 1981

*********************

Photo: Kerry Young
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/kerry_young

(under creative commons license (4.0))
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

*********************

edited: 12.08.2017

Ground Weta (Hemiandrus) – undescribed species

Ground Weta (Hemiandrus) – undescribed species

This New Zealand genus contains about 35 species, of which only some 15 appear to have been described so far, leaving about 20 species still undescribed. [1][3]

The ground weta are thought to be widespread and common, some are even found in urban gardens, however, some species of course are very restricted and are indeed threatened.

Some species are known to exhibit maternal care of eggs and offspring – the mothers take care for their eggs and their young. [2]

~~~

Unfortunately I do not know which of the following tag-named forms were properly described in the meantime.:

Hemiandrus sp. “alius”
Hemiandrus sp. “disparalis”
Hemiandrus sp. “dodsons”
Hemiandrus sp. “elegans”
Hemiandrus sp. “Esperance Valley”
Hemiandrus sp. “evansae”
Hemiandrus sp. “furoviarius”
Hemiandrus sp. “hapuku”
Hemiandrus sp. “horomaka”
Hemiandrus sp. “Hunter Mountains”
Hemiandrus sp. “kapiti”
Hemiandrus sp. “madisylvestris”
Hemiandrus sp. “mtgeorge”
Hemiandrus sp. “nokomai”
Hemiandrus sp. “okiwi”
Hemiandrus sp. “onokis”
Hemiandrus sp. “otautau”
Hemiandrus sp. “otekauri”
Hemiandrus sp. “porters”
Hemiandrus sp. “promontorius”
Hemiandrus sp. “pureora 1”
Hemiandrus sp. “pureora 2”
Hemiandrus sp. “redhills”
Hemiandrus sp. “richmond”
Hemiandrus sp. “saxatilis”
Hemiandrus sp. “staveley”
Hemiandrus sp. “timaru”
Hemiandrus sp. “turgidulus”
Hemiandrus sp. “waimakariri”
Hemiandrus sp. “vicinus”

*********************

References:

[1] P. M. Johns: Distribution and conservation status of ground weta, Hemiandrus species (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae). Science for Conservation 180. 2001
[2] Tony Jewell: Two new species of Hemiandrus (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae) from Fiordland National Park, New Zealand. Zootaxa 1542: 49-57. 2007
[3] B. L. Taylor Smith; M. Morgan-Richards & S. A. Trewick: New Zealand ground wētā (Anostostomatidae: Hemiandrus): descriptions of two species with notes on their biology. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 40(4): 314-329. 2013

*********************

hemiandrus.sp.rudolph89

Hemiandrus sp.

Photo: Rudolph89

(This image is in the public domain.)

*********************

edited: 06.03.2016

Schizostachyum glaucifolium (Rupr.) Munro

Schizostachyum glaucifolium

Distribution:

Fiji: Moala, Ovalau, Rotuma, Taveuni, Vanua Levu, Viti Levu
Samoa: ‘Aunu’u, Nu’ulua, Nu’utele, Ofu, Olosega, Savai’i, Ta’u, ‘Upolu

local names:

bitu – Fiji
bitu dina – Fiji
bitu kau – Fiji
bitu ni viti – Fiji

*********************

References:

[1] Albert C. Smith: Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji (Spermatophytes only). Vol. 1. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii 1979

Alectryon excelsus Gaertn.

Alectryon excelsus

Distribution:

New Zealand: Great Barrier Island; Kapiti Island; North Island; Aorangi Island (Poor Knights Islands); South Island; Great Island, West Island (Three Kings Islands); Tiritiri Matangi Island

local name:

titoki – New Zealand

~~~

Alectryon excelsus ssp. grandis (Cheeseman) de Lange & E. K. Cameron – Great Island, West Island (Three Kings Islands)

Veronica lanceolata Benth.

Veronica lanceolata

Distribution:

New Zealand: North Island; South Island

local names: –

*********************

Photo: Peter de Lange
http://www.inaturalist.org/people/pjd1

(public domain)

*********************

edited: 07.02.2018